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Jonathan Haidt: Can a divided America heal?

Jonathan Haidt: Može li podijeljena Amerika zacijeliti?

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Kako se SAD može oporaviti poslije negativnih, poborničkih predsjedničkih izbora 2016.? Socijalni psiholog Jonathan Haidt proučava moral koji oblikuje temelj naših političkih izbora. U razgovoru s kuratorom TED-a Chrisom Andersonom opisuje obrasce razmišljanja i povijesne uzroke koji su doveli do tako oštrih podjela u Americi - i daje viziju kako zemlja može krenuti naprijed.

- Social psychologist
Jonathan Haidt studies how -- and why -- we evolved to be moral. By understanding more about our moral roots, his hope is that we can learn to be civil and open-minded. Full bio

- TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading. Full bio

Chris Anderson: Dakle,
Jon, ovo je zastrašujuće.
00:12
Chris Anderson: So, Jon, this feels scary.
Jonathan Haidt: Jeste.
00:15
Jonathan Haidt: Yeah.
CA: Čini se kao da je svijet na mjestu
00:16
CA: It feels like the world is in a place
koje već dugo nismo vidjeli.
00:18
that we haven't seen for a long time.
Ljudi ne samo da se ne slažu
na način koji nam je poznat,
00:20
People don't just disagree
in the way that we're familiar with,
na političkoj razdjelnici
između lijevog i desnog.
00:24
on the left-right political divide.
00:26
There are much deeper differences afoot.
U pitanju su mnogo dublja razilaženja.
Što se to uopće zbiva
i kako smo dovde stigli?
00:29
What on earth is going on,
and how did we get here?
JH: To je drugačije.
00:33
JH: This is different.
Osjećaj je mnogo više
apokaliptičan.
00:36
There's a much more
apocalyptic sort of feeling.
Ankete Pew Research centra pokazuju
00:39
Survey research by Pew Research shows
da je stupanj osjećaja
da druga strana nije samo --
00:41
that the degree to which we feel
that the other side is not just --
ne samo da su nam odbojni;
jako su nam odbojni,
00:45
we don't just dislike them;
we strongly dislike them,
i mislimo da predstavljaju
prijetnju za naciju.
00:48
and we think that they are
a threat to the nation.
Ti brojevi stalno rastu
00:51
Those numbers have been going up and up,
i dostigli su preko 50 posto
sada na obje strane.
00:53
and those are over 50 percent
now on both sides.
Ljudi su uplašeni
00:56
People are scared,
jer to izgleda kao da je drugačije
nego prije; mnogo je intenzivnije.
00:57
because it feels like this is different
than before; it's much more intense.
Kada god pogledam bilo koju
vrstu društvene zagonetke
01:01
Whenever I look
at any sort of social puzzle,
uvijek primjenjujem tri
osnovna principa moralne psihologije
01:04
I always apply the three basic
principles of moral psychology,
i mislim da će nam i ovdje pomoći.
01:07
and I think they'll help us here.
Prva stvar koju uvijek
treba imati na umu
01:09
So the first thing that you
have to always keep in mind
kada razmišljate o politici
01:11
when you're thinking about politics
je da smo mi plemenska vrsta.
01:13
is that we're tribal.
Evoluirali smo kao
pripadnici plemena.
01:15
We evolved for tribalism.
01:16
One of the simplest and greatest
insights into human social nature
Jedan od najjednostavnijih i najvećih
uvida u ljudsku društvenu prirodu
01:19
is the Bedouin proverb:
je beduinska poslovica:
01:20
"Me against my brother;
"Ja protiv mog brata;
ja i moj brat protiv našeg bratića;
01:22
me and my brother against our cousin;
ja i moj brat i bratići
protiv stranca."
01:24
me and my brother and cousins
against the stranger."
Ta plemenska pripadnost nam je
omogućila stvaranje velikih zajednica
01:26
And that tribalism allowed us
to create large societies
i udruživanje radi natjecanja s drugima.
01:31
and to come together
in order to compete with others.
To nas je izvelo iz džungle
i iz malih grupa,
01:34
That brought us out of the jungle
and out of small groups,
no to znači da imamo vječni sukob.
01:38
but it means that we have
eternal conflict.
Pitanje koje treba razmotriti je:
01:40
The question you have to look at is:
Koji aspekti našeg društva
doprinose ogorčenosti,
01:42
What aspects of our society
are making that more bitter,
a koji ga smiruju?
01:44
and what are calming them down?
CA: To je vrlo mračna poslovica.
01:46
CA: That's a very dark proverb.
Ti kažeš da je to zapravo ugrađeno
u mentalni sklop većine ljudi
01:47
You're saying that that's actually
baked into most people's mental wiring
na nekoj razini?
01:52
at some level?
JH: Apsolutno. To je upravo osnovni
aspekt ljudske društvene spoznaje.
01:53
JH: Oh, absolutely. This is just
a basic aspect of human social cognition.
No mi također možemo
vrlo mirno živjeti zajedno
01:57
But we can also live together
really peacefully,
i izumili smo razne vrste
zabavnih načina za igranje rata.
01:59
and we've invented all kinds
of fun ways of, like, playing war.
Mislim sportove, politiku --
02:02
I mean, sports, politics --
to su sve načini na koje
izražavamo tu plemensku prirodu
02:04
these are all ways that we get
to exercise this tribal nature
bez da itko bude povrijeđen.
02:08
without actually hurting anyone.
Mi smo također dobri u trgovini
i istraživanju i upoznavanju novih ljudi.
02:09
We're also really good at trade
and exploration and meeting new people.
Našu plemensku pripadnost treba
promatrati kao nešto što raste ili pada --
02:14
So you have to see our tribalism
as something that goes up or down --
nije da smo osuđeni
da se stalno međusobno borimo,
02:17
it's not like we're doomed
to always be fighting each other,
ali nikada nećemo imati svjetski mir.
02:20
but we'll never have world peace.
CA: Veličina tog plemena
može se smanjivati ili povećavati.
02:22
CA: The size of that tribe
can shrink or expand.
JH: Točno.
02:26
JH: Right.
CA: Veličina onoga što zovemo "mi"
02:27
CA: The size of what we consider "us"
i što zovemo "drugi" ili "oni"
02:29
and what we consider "other" or "them"
može se mijenjati.
02:31
can change.
I neki ljudi su vjerovali da taj proces
može trajati beskonačno.
02:34
And some people believed that process
could continue indefinitely.
JH: To je istina.
02:40
JH: That's right.
CA: I mi smo stvarno
širili značenje plemena neko vrijeme.
02:41
CA: And we were indeed expanding
the sense of tribe for a while.
JH: Dakle to je, mislim,
02:44
JH: So this is, I think,
gdje dolazimo do vjerojatno nove
lijevo-desne distinkcije.
02:45
where we're getting at what's possibly
the new left-right distinction.
Mislim, lijevo-desno
kako smo to svi naslijedili,
02:49
I mean, the left-right
as we've all inherited it,
proizlazi iz distinkcije između
rada nasuprot kapitalu,
02:51
comes out of the labor
versus capital distinction,
i radničke klase i Marxa.
02:54
and the working class, and Marx.
No, mislim da ono što danas
vidimo, sve više,
02:56
But I think what we're seeing
now, increasingly,
je podjela u svim
zapadnim demokracijama
02:59
is a divide in all the Western democracies
između ljudi koji žele stati na naciji,
03:01
between the people
who want to stop at nation,
ljudi koji su više uskogrudni --
03:05
the people who are more parochial --
i to ne mislim u lošem smislu --
03:07
and I don't mean that in a bad way --
ljudi koji imaju puno
jači osjećaj ukorijenjenosti,
03:09
people who have much more
of a sense of being rooted,
njima je stalo do njihovog grada,
zajednice i nacije.
03:12
they care about their town,
their community and their nation.
I onda oni koji su manje skučeni i koji --
03:15
And then those who are
anti-parochial and who --
kad god sam zbunjen sjetim se
pjesme Johna Lennona "Imagine"
03:19
whenever I get confused, I just think
of the John Lennon song "Imagine."
"Zamisli da nema zemalja,
da se nema za što ubijati ili umrijeti."
03:23
"Imagine there's no countries,
nothing to kill or die for."
To su ljudi koji žele više
globalnog upravljanja,
03:26
And so these are the people
who want more global governance,
oni ne vole nacionalne države,
oni ne vole granice.
03:29
they don't like nation states,
they don't like borders.
To se također vidi po cijeloj Europi.
03:32
You see this all over Europe as well.
Ima jedan velikan metafora --
ustvari ime mu je Shakespeare --
03:33
There's a great metaphor guy --
actually, his name is Shakespeare --
koji je prije deset godina
pisao u Britaniji.
03:37
writing ten years ago in Britain.
03:38
He had a metaphor:
Imao je metaforu:
"Jesmo li mi dizači pokretnog mosta
ili spuštači pokretnog mosta?"
03:39
"Are we drawbridge-uppers
or drawbridge-downers?"
A Britanija je podijeljena
52-48 po tom pitanju
03:43
And Britain is divided
52-48 on that point.
I Amerika je također
podijeljena po tom pitanju.
03:46
And America is divided on that point, too.
CA: I tako, oni od nas
koji su odrastali s Beatlesima
03:49
CA: And so, those of us
who grew up with The Beatles
i tom vrstom hipi filozofije
sanjanja o povezanijem svijetu --
03:52
and that sort of hippie philosophy
of dreaming of a more connected world --
to se činilo tako idealistički i "kako bi
itko mogao o tome misliti loše?"
03:56
it felt so idealistic and "how could
anyone think badly about that?"
A ti kažeš da ustvari
04:00
And what you're saying is that, actually,
milijuni ljudi danas osjećaju
da to nije samo smiješno;
04:02
millions of people today
feel that that isn't just silly;
to je ustvari opasno i krivo
i oni se toga boje.
04:07
it's actually dangerous and wrong,
and they're scared of it.
JH: Ja mislim da je veliki problem,
pogotovo u Europi, ali i ovdje,
04:09
JH: I think the big issue, especially
in Europe but also here,
problem imigracije.
04:13
is the issue of immigration.
I mislim da tu moramo
vrlo pažljivo razmotriti
04:14
And I think this is where
we have to look very carefully
društvenu znanost
o različitosti i imigraciji.
04:17
at the social science
about diversity and immigration.
Jednom kada nešto
postane ispolitizirano,
04:21
Once something becomes politicized,
kada to postane nešto
što lijevi vole, a desni --
04:22
once it becomes something
that the left loves and the right --
tada ni društveni znanstvenici
ne mogu o tome hladno razmišljati.
04:25
then even the social scientists
can't think straight about it.
Različitost je dobra na mnogo načina.
04:29
Now, diversity is good in a lot of ways.
Ona očigledno stvara više inovacija.
04:31
It clearly creates more innovation.
Američka ekonomija je enormno
porasla zahvaljujući tome.
04:33
The American economy
has grown enormously from it.
Različitost i imigracija
čine mnogo dobrih stvari.
04:35
Diversity and immigration
do a lot of good things.
No, ono što globalisti,
mislim, ne vide,
04:38
But what the globalists,
I think, don't see,
što ne žele vidjeti,
04:40
what they don't want to see,
je da etnička različitost
umanjuje društveni kapital i povjerenje.
04:42
is that ethnic diversity
cuts social capital and trust.
Ima jedna vrlo važna
studija Roberta Putnama,
04:48
There's a very important
study by Robert Putnam,
autora knjige "Kuglati sam",
04:51
the author of "Bowling Alone,"
koja razmatra baze podataka
o društvenom kapitalu.
04:52
looking at social capital databases.
Načelno, što se više
ljudi osjećaju jednakima
04:54
And basically, the more people
feel that they are the same,
to više vjeruju jedan drugome,
04:57
the more they trust each other,
04:59
the more they can have
a redistributionist welfare state.
tim prije mogu imati
redistributivnu socijalnu državu.
Skandinavske zemlje su tako prekrasne
05:02
Scandinavian countries are so wonderful
jer su po svom nasljeđu
malene, homogene zemlje.
05:04
because they have this legacy
of being small, homogenous countries.
A to vodi progresivnoj socijalnoj državi,
05:07
And that leads to
a progressive welfare state,
skupu progresivnih, lijevo orjentiranih
vrijednosti, koji kaže,
05:11
a set of progressive
left-leaning values, which says,
"Spuštajte pomični most!
Svijet je sjajno mjesto.
05:14
"Drawbridge down!
The world is a great place.
Ljudi u Siriji pate --
moramo ih srdačno primiti."
05:17
People in Syria are suffering --
we must welcome them in."
I to je prekrasna stvar.
05:20
And it's a beautiful thing.
Ali ako, a bio sam
u Švedskoj ovog ljeta,
05:21
But if, and I was in Sweden
this summer,
ako je diskurs u Švedskoj
potpuno politički korektan
05:24
if the discourse in Sweden
is fairly politically correct
i oni ne mogu govoriti
o negativnim stranama,
05:27
and they can't talk about the downsides,
završit ćete tako da
dovedete mnogo ljudi.
05:30
you end up bringing a lot of people in.
To će srezati društveni kapital,
05:32
That's going to cut social capital,
to otežava opstanak socijalne države
05:33
it makes it hard to have a welfare state
i oni bi mogli završiti,
poput nas u Americi,
05:35
and they might end up,
as we have in America,
s rasno podijeljenim,
vidljivo rasno podijeljenim, društvom.
05:38
with a racially divided, visibly
racially divided, society.
O svemu ovome
vrlo je neugodno govoriti.
05:41
So this is all very
uncomfortable to talk about.
No mislim da je to stvar,
posebno u Europi i kod nas također,
05:44
But I think this is the thing,
especially in Europe and for us, too,
koju moramo razmatrati.
05:47
we need to be looking at.
CA: Ti kažeš da razumni ljudi,
05:48
CA: You're saying that people of reason,
ljudi koji sebe ne smatraju rasistima,
05:50
people who would consider
themselves not racists,
već moralnim, uglednim ljudima,
05:53
but moral, upstanding people,
imaju obrazloženje da su
ljudska bića ipak suviše različita;
05:55
have a rationale that says
humans are just too different;
da smo u opasnosti da
precijenimo ljudske sposobnosti,
05:58
that we're in danger of overloading
our sense of what humans are capable of,
miješajući ljude koji su suviše različiti.
06:03
by mixing in people who are too different.
JH: Da, ali ovo mogu
učiniti puno prihvatljivijim
06:06
JH: Yes, but I can make it
much more palatable
ako kažem da se ne radi nužno o rasi.
06:09
by saying it's not necessarily about race.
Radi se o kulturi.
06:12
It's about culture.
Ima jedan prekrasan rad
političke znanstvenice Karen Stenner,
06:14
There's wonderful work by a political
scientist named Karen Stenner,
koja pokazuje da kada ljudi imaju osjećaj
06:18
who shows that when people have a sense
da smo svi ujedinjeni, svi jednaki,
06:21
that we are all united,
we're all the same,
tada ima mnogo ljudi
koji su skloni autoritarizmu.
06:23
there are many people who have
a predisposition to authoritarianism.
Ti ljudi nisu osobito rasisti
06:27
Those people aren't particularly racist
kada osjećaju da nema prijetnje
06:29
when they feel as through
there's not a threat
našem društvenom i moralnom poretku.
06:31
to our social and moral order.
No, ako ih pokusno potaknete
06:33
But if you prime them experimentally
razmišljanjem da se raspadamo,
da su ljudi sve više različiti,
06:35
by thinking we're coming apart,
people are getting more different,
tada postaju veći rasisti, homofobi,
žele izbaciti devijantne.
06:38
then they get more racist, homophobic,
they want to kick out the deviants.
Tako dijelom dobivate
autoritarnu reakciju.
06:41
So it's in part that you get
an authoritarian reaction.
Ljevica, slijedeći Lennonovu liniju --
06:44
The left, following through
the Lennonist line --
liniju Johna Lennona --
06:47
the John Lennon line --
čini stvari koje stvaraju
autoritarnu reakciju.
06:48
does things that create
an authoritarian reaction.
To nesumnjivo vidimo u Americi
s alternativnom desnicom.
06:50
We're certainly seeing that
in America with the alt-right.
To smo vidjeli u Britanij,
vidimo to širom Europe.
06:53
We saw it in Britain,
we've seen it all over Europe.
No, pozitivniji dio toga
06:56
But the more positive part of that
je da mislim da su lokalisti
ili nacionalisti, ustvari u pravu --
06:58
is that I think the localists,
or the nationalists, are actually right --
da ako naglašavate
našu kulturalnu sličnost,
07:03
that, if you emphasize
our cultural similarity,
tada rasa ustvari nije toliko važna.
07:07
then race doesn't actually
matter very much.
Tako asimilacionistički
pristup imigraciji
07:09
So an assimilationist
approach to immigration
otklanja mnogo ovih problema.
07:12
removes a lot of these problems.
A ako vam je važno imati
darežljivu socijalnu državu,
07:13
And if you value having
a generous welfare state,
morate naglašavati da smo svi jednaki.
07:16
you've got to emphasize
that we're all the same.
CA: OK, dakle rastuća imigracija
i strahovi oko toga
07:18
CA: OK, so rising immigration
and fears about that
su jedan od uzroka sadašnje podjele.
07:21
are one of the causes
of the current divide.
Koji su drugi uzroci?
07:25
What are other causes?
JH: Sljedeći princip moralne psihologije
07:26
JH: The next principle of moral psychology
je da su intuicije na prvom mjestu,
strateško rasuđivanje na drugom.
07:28
is that intuitions come first,
strategic reasoning second.
Vjerojatno ste čuli za izraz
"motivirano rasuđivanje"
07:32
You've probably heard
the term "motivated reasoning"
07:35
or "confirmation bias."
ili "potvrda pristranosti".
Postoje neki doista zanimljivi radovi
07:36
There's some really interesting work
o tome kako su naša inteligencija
i naše verbalne sposobnosti
07:38
on how our high intelligence
and our verbal abilities
možda evoluirali, ne da
nam pomognu otkriti istinu,
07:41
might have evolved
not to help us find out the truth,
već da nam pomognu
da manipuliramo jedni drugima,
07:45
but to help us manipulate each other,
defend our reputation ...
obranimo svoju reputaciju ...
Mi smo zaista dobri u
opravdavanju sebe samih.
07:48
We're really, really good
at justifying ourselves.
A kada uzmete u obzir interese grupe,
07:51
And when you bring
group interests into account,
dakle, nisam samo ja,
već moj tim nasuprot tvom timu,
07:53
so it's not just me,
it's my team versus your team,
međutim, ako procjenjujete dokaze
da je vaša strana u krivu,
07:56
whereas if you're evaluating evidence
that your side is wrong,
mi to jednostavno
ne možemo prihvatiti.
07:59
we just can't accept that.
To je razlog da ne možete
dobiti političku prepirku.
08:01
So this is why you can't win
a political argument.
Ako o nečem raspravljate,
08:03
If you're debating something,
ne možete osobu uvjeriti
razumom i dokazima
08:05
you can't persuade the person
with reasons and evidence,
jer to nije način
na koji rasuđivanje funkcionira.
08:08
because that's not
the way reasoning works.
Uzmimo sada Internet,
uzmimo Google:
08:10
So now, give us the internet,
give us Google:
"Čuo sam da je
Barack Obama rođen u Keniji.
08:14
"I heard that Barack Obama
was born in Kenya.
Hajde da pogledam u Google -- oh Bože!
10 milijuna rezultata! Vidi, istina je!"
08:17
Let me Google that -- oh my God!
10 million hits! Look, he was!"
CA: Dakle, ovo je neugodno iznenađenje
za mnogo ljudi.
08:21
CA: So this has come as an unpleasant
surprise to a lot of people.
Tehno-optimisti često
društvene medije opisuju kao
08:24
Social media has often been framed
by techno-optimists
golemu povezujuću silu
koja će ujediniti ljude.
08:27
as this great connecting force
that would bring people together.
No, to je imalo neke
neočekivane kontra efekte.
08:32
And there have been some
unexpected counter-effects to that.
JH: To je točno.
08:36
JH: That's right.
Zato sam ja očaran yin-yang pogledima
08:38
That's why I'm very enamored
of yin-yang views
na ljudsku prirodu i lijevo-desno --
08:40
of human nature and left-right --
da je svaka strana u pravu
o određenim stvarima,
08:42
that each side is right
about certain things,
a slijepa je za druge stvari.
08:44
but then it goes blind to other things.
Ljevica općenito vjeruje
da je ljudska priroda dobra:
08:46
And so the left generally believes
that human nature is good:
ujedinimo ljude, srušimo zidove
i svima će nam biti dobro.
08:49
bring people together, knock down
the walls and all will be well.
Desnica -- socijalni konzervativci,
ne libertarijanci --
08:52
The right -- social conservatives,
not libertarians --
socijalni konzervativci općenito
vjeruju da ljudi mogu biti pohlepni
08:55
social conservatives generally
believe people can be greedy
i seksualni i sebični,
08:59
and sexual and selfish,
i trebamo regulaciju,
i trebamo restrikcije.
09:01
and we need regulation,
and we need restrictions.
Zato, da, ako srušite sve zidove,
09:04
So, yeah, if you knock down all the walls,
dozvolite ljudima da komuniciraju
širom svijeta,
09:06
allow people to communicate
all over the world,
dobivate puno pornografije
i puno rasizma.
09:08
you get a lot of porn and a lot of racism.
CA: Pomozi nam onda da razumijemo.
09:10
CA: So help us understand.
09:12
These principles of human nature
have been with us forever.
Ovi principi ljudske prirode
oduvijek su s nama.
Što se to promijenilo što je produbilo
taj osjećaj podijeljenosti?
09:18
What's changed that's deepened
this feeling of division?
JH: Morate vidjeti šest do deset
različitih niti koje se sve spajaju.
09:24
JH: You have to see six to ten
different threads all coming together.
Nabrojat ću tek nekoliko njih.
09:29
I'll just list a couple of them.
Dakle, u Americi, jedna od velikih --
ustvari, Americi i Europi --
09:31
So in America, one of the big --
actually, America and Europe --
jedna od najvećih je Drugi svjetski rat.
09:35
one of the biggest ones is World War II.
Postoji zanimljivo istraživanje
Joea Henricha i drugih
09:37
There's interesting research
from Joe Henrich and others
koje kaže da ako je
vaša zemlja bila u ratu,
09:40
that says if your country was at war,
naročito ako ste tada bili mladi,
09:42
especially when you were young,
i testiramo vas 30 godina poslije
o dilemi općeg doba
09:44
then we test you 30 years later
in a commons dilemma
ili zatvorenikovoj dilemi,
09:47
or a prisoner's dilemma,
bit ćete kooperativniji.
09:49
you're more cooperative.
Zbog naše plemenske prirode, ako ste --
09:50
Because of our tribal nature, if you're --
moji roditelji su bili tinejdžeri
u vrijeme Drugog svjetskog rata,
09:53
my parents were teenagers
during World War II,
i naokolo bi skupljali ostatke aluminija
09:56
and they would go out
looking for scraps of aluminum
pridonoseći ratnim naporima.
09:59
to help the war effort.
Mislim, svi su se međusobno pomagali.
10:00
I mean, everybody pulled together.
I onda ti ljudi idu dalje,
10:02
And so then these people go on,
uzdižu se kroz poslovni svijet i vladu
10:04
they rise up through business
and government,
zauzimaju vodeće pozicije.
10:06
they take leadership positions.
Oni su zaista dobri u
postizanju kompromisa i suradnji.
10:08
They're really good
at compromise and cooperation.
Svi su oni otišli u mirovinu
do kraja 90-ih.
10:11
They all retire by the '90s.
Tako smo ostali s baby boomerima
krajem 90-ih.
10:13
So we're left with baby boomers
by the end of the '90s.
A njihova mladost je prošla u
međusobnim sukobima
10:17
And their youth was spent fighting
each other within each country,
unutar vlastitih zemalja.
1968. i kasnije.
10:21
in 1968 and afterwards.
Gubitak generacije 2. svjetskog rata,
"Najveće generacije",
10:22
The loss of the World War II generation,
"The Greatest Generation,"
ogroman je.
10:26
is huge.
To je jedna nit.
10:28
So that's one.
Druga nit je purifikacija
dviju stranaka u Americi
10:30
Another, in America,
is the purification of the two parties.
Nekada je bilo liberalnih Republikanaca
i konzervativnih Demokrata.
10:33
There used to be liberal Republicans
and conservative Democrats.
Tako je sredinom 20. stoljeća
Amerika imala pravo dvostranačje.
10:37
So America had a mid-20th century
that was really bipartisan.
No, zbog raznih faktora
koji su počeli pokretati stvari,
10:40
But because of a variety of factors
that started things moving,
do 90-ih imali smo očišćenu
liberalnu stranku i konzervativnu stranku.
10:44
by the 90's, we had a purified
liberal party and conservative party.
Tako su sada ljudi u svakoj stranci
stvarno drugačiji,
10:48
So now, the people in either party
really are different,
i mi stvarno ne želimo da
se naša djeca s njima žene,
10:50
and we really don't want
our children to marry them,
što u 60-ima nije bilo jako važno.
10:53
which, in the '60s,
didn't matter very much.
Dakle, purifikacija stranaka.
10:55
So, the purification of the parties.
Treća nit je Internet i,
kao što sam rekao,
10:57
Third is the internet and, as I said,
to je najnevjerojatniji stimulans
za post-hoc rasuđivanje i demonizaciju.
10:59
it's just the most amazing stimulant
for post-hoc reasoning and demonization.
CA: Prizvuk onoga što se sada događa
na Internetu prilično je zabrinjavajući.
11:04
CA: The tone of what's happening
on the internet now is quite troubling.
Upravo sam napravio brzu pretragu
na Twitteru o izborima
11:09
I just did a quick search
on Twitter about the election
i vidio dva tweeta jedan do drugog.
11:12
and saw two tweets next to each other.
Jedan, ispod slike rasističkog grafita:
11:15
One, against a picture of racist graffiti:
"To je odvratno!
11:20
"This is disgusting!
Rugoba u ovoj zemlji
koju nam je donio #Trump."
11:21
Ugliness in this country,
brought to us by #Trump."
A sljedeći je:
11:25
And then the next one is:
"Posveta pokvarenoj Hillary. Odvratno!"
11:27
"Crooked Hillary
dedication page. Disgusting!"
Mene muči ova ideja "odvratnosti".
11:31
So this idea of "disgust"
is troubling to me.
Jer možete imati prepirku
ili neslaganje o nečemu,
11:35
Because you can have an argument
or a disagreement about something,
možete se na nekoga naljutiti.
11:38
you can get angry at someone.
Odvratnost, kako sam vas čuo,
vodi stvari na puno dublju razinu.
11:41
Disgust, I've heard you say,
takes things to a much deeper level.
JH: To je točno.
Odvratnost je drukčija.
11:44
JH: That's right. Disgust is different.
Ljutnja -- znate, ja imam djecu.
11:46
Anger -- you know, I have kids.
Oni se potuku 10 puta dnevno,
11:48
They fight 10 times a day,
a vole jedno drugo 30 puta dnevno.
11:50
and they love each other 30 times a day.
Samo idete simo tamo:
naljutite se, odljutite se;
11:52
You just go back and forth:
you get angry, you're not angry;
naljutite se, odljutite se.
11:55
you're angry, you're not angry.
Ali odvratnost je drukčija.
11:56
But disgust is different.
Odvratnost oslikava osobu
kao nižu vrstu, čudovišnu,
11:58
Disgust paints the person
as subhuman, monstrous,
deformiranu, moralno deformiranu.
12:02
deformed, morally deformed.
Odvratnost je kao neizbrisiva tinta.
12:04
Disgust is like indelible ink.
Postoji istraživanje Johna Gottmana
o bračnoj terapiji.
12:07
There's research from John Gottman
on marital therapy.
Ako pogledate lica -- ako jedan član
para pokazuje odvratnost ili prezir,
12:11
If you look at the faces -- if one
of the couple shows disgust or contempt,
to je prediktor da će se uskoro rastati,
12:16
that's a predictor that they're going
to get divorced soon,
dok ako pokazuju ljutnju,
to ne predskazuje ništa,
12:19
whereas if they show anger,
that doesn't predict anything,
jer ako dobro postupate s ljutnjom
ona je ustvari dobra.
12:22
because if you deal with anger well,
it actually is good.
Ovi izbori su drugačiji.
12:25
So this election is different.
Donald Trump osobno
puno koristi riječ "odvratnost".
12:26
Donald Trump personally
uses the word "disgust" a lot.
On je vrlo osjetljiv na bacile
pa je odvratnost jako važna --
12:30
He's very germ-sensitive,
so disgust does matter a lot --
više za njega, to je nešto
specifično za njega --
12:33
more for him, that's something
unique to him --
no dok sve više
demoniziramo jedni druge,
12:37
but as we demonize each other more,
i ponovo, po svjetonazoru maniheizma,
12:40
and again, through
the Manichaean worldview,
ideja da je svijet borba
između dobra i zla
12:43
the idea that the world
is a battle between good and evil
dok ovo sve više bjesni,
12:46
as this has been ramping up,
vjerojatnije je da nećemo samo reći
oni su u krivu ili ne sviđaju mi se,
12:47
we're more likely not just to say
they're wrong or I don't like them,
već kažemo da su zli, sotonski,
12:51
but we say they're evil, they're satanic,
oni su odvratni, oni su gnusni.
12:53
they're disgusting, they're revolting.
A onda ne želimo ništa imati s njima.
12:55
And then we want nothing to do with them.
I zato to danas vidimo,
na primjer, u kampusu.
12:58
And that's why I think we're seeing it,
for example, on campus now.
Vidimo sve veći poriv
da se ljudi drže dalje od kampusa,
13:02
We're seeing more the urge
to keep people off campus,
da se ušutkaju, da ih se drži podalje.
13:04
silence them, keep them away.
Bojim se da cijela
ova generacija mladih ljudi,
13:06
I'm afraid that this whole
generation of young people,
ako njihovo uvođenje u politiku
uključuje mnogo odvratnosti,
13:09
if their introduction to politics
involves a lot of disgust,
oni se neće željeti uključivati
u politiku kada odrastu.
13:13
they're not going to want to be involved
in politics as they get older.
CA: Pa kako da se nosimo s tim?
13:17
CA: So how do we deal with that?
Odvratnost. Kako ublažiti odvratnost?
13:19
Disgust. How do you defuse disgust?
JH: To ne možete argumentima.
13:24
JH: You can't do it with reasons.
Mislim ...
13:27
I think ...
Mnogo godina sam
proučavao odvratnost,
13:30
I studied disgust for many years,
and I think about emotions a lot.
i mnogo razmišljam o emocijama.
I ja mislim da je suprotnost
odvratnosti ustvari ljubav.
13:33
And I think that the opposite
of disgust is actually love.
U ljubavi se radi o, poput ...
13:37
Love is all about, like ...
Odvratnost je zatvaranje, granica.
13:41
Disgust is closing off, borders.
Ljubav je rastvaranje zidova.
13:43
Love is about dissolving walls.
Zato su osobni odnosi, mislim,
13:47
So personal relationships, I think,
vjerojatno najsnažnije oružje koje imamo.
13:49
are probably the most
powerful means we have.
Može vam biti odvratna grupa ljudi,
13:53
You can be disgusted by a group of people,
a onda upoznate pojedinu osobu
13:56
but then you meet a particular person
i istinski otkrijete da su dragi.
13:57
and you genuinely discover
that they're lovely.
I onda to postepeno nagriza
ili mijenja i vašu kategoriju.
14:00
And then gradually that chips away
or changes your category as well.
Tragedija je da su Amerikanci bili
mnogo više izmješani u gradovima
14:06
The tragedy is, Americans used to be
much more mixed up in the their towns
po lijevo- desnom usmjerenju ili politici.
14:12
by left-right or politics.
A sada kako je to postala
velika moralna razdjelnica,
14:14
And now that it's become
this great moral divide,
14:16
there's a lot of evidence
that we're moving to be near people
ima puno dokaza da se
premještamo bliže ljudima
koji su politički slični nama.
14:19
who are like us politically.
Teže je pronaći nekoga
tko je na drugoj strani.
14:21
It's harder to find somebody
who's on the other side.
Oni su tamo preko, oni su daleko.
14:23
So they're over there, they're far away.
Teže ih je upoznati.
14:26
It's harder to get to know them.
CA: Što biste rekli nekome,
recimo Amerikancima,
14:27
CA: What would you say to someone
or say to Americans,
ljudima općenito,
14:31
people generally,
o tome što bismo trebali
razumjeti jedni o drugima
14:33
about what we should understand
about each other
što bi nam pomoglo
da promislimo minutu
14:35
that might help us rethink for a minute
o tom instinktu "odvratnosti"?
14:39
this "disgust" instinct?
JH: Da.
14:42
JH: Yes.
Uistinu važna stvar
koju treba imati na umu --
14:43
A really important
thing to keep in mind --
postoji istraživanje političkog
znanstvenika Alana Abramowitza
14:45
there's research by political
scientist Alan Abramowitz,
koje pokazuje da američkom
demokracijom sve više upravlja
14:50
showing that American democracy
is increasingly governed
nešto što se naziva
"negativno poborništvo".
14:54
by what's called "negative partisanship."
To znači, vi mislite,
u redu, postoji kandidat,
14:56
That means you think,
OK there's a candidate,
sviđa vam se kandidat,
glasate za kandidata.
15:00
you like the candidate,
you vote for the candidate.
No, s porastom negativnog oglašavanja
15:02
But with the rise of negative advertising
i društvenih medija
i svih vrsta drugih trendova,
15:04
and social media
and all sorts of other trends,
sve više način na koji
se provode izbori
15:06
increasingly, the way elections are done
je takav da svaka strana
pokušava drugu stranu učiniti
15:08
is that each side tries to make
the other side so horrible, so awful,
tako užasnom, tako groznom
da ćete glasati
za mog momka po defaultu.
15:12
that you'll vote for my guy by default.
I tako, dok mi sve više i više
glasamo protiv druge strane,
15:15
And so as we more and more vote
against the other side
a ne za našu stranu,
15:18
and not for our side,
morate imati na umu da,
ako su ljudi na ljevici,
15:19
you have to keep in mind
that if people are on the left,
oni misle, "Prije sam mislio
da su republikanci loši,
15:25
they think, "Well, I used to think
that Republicans were bad,
a sada to Donald Trump dokazuje.
15:28
but now Donald Trump proves it.
I sada svakog republikanca
mogu obojati svim stvarima
15:29
And now every Republican,
I can paint with all the things
koje mislim o Trumpu."
15:32
that I think about Trump."
A to nije nužno istina.
15:33
And that's not necessarily true.
Oni općenito nisu jako zadovoljni
svojim kandidatom.
15:35
They're generally not very happy
with their candidate.
To su najnegativniji pobornički
izbori u američkoj povijesti.
15:38
This is the most negative partisanship
election in American history.
Dakle, prvo morate odvojiti
svoje osjećaje o kandidatu
15:43
So you have to first separate
your feelings about the candidate
od svojih osjećaja o ljudima
kojima je dan izbor.
15:47
from your feelings about the people
who are given a choice.
I onda morate shvatiti da,
15:50
And then you have to realize that,
budući da svi mi živimo u
odvojenom moralnom svijetu --
15:53
because we all live
in a separate moral world --
u knjizi koristim metaforu
da smo svi zarobljeni u "Matrici",
15:55
the metaphor I use in the book
is that we're all trapped in "The Matrix,"
ili da je svaka moralna zajednica
matrica, konsenzualna halucinacija.
15:59
or each moral community is a matrix,
a consensual hallucination.
Pa tako, ako ste vi u plavoj matrici,
16:02
And so if you're within the blue matrix,
sve vas neodoljivo navodi
da je druga strana --
16:04
everything's completely compelling
that the other side --
oni su trogloditi, oni su rasisti,
oni su najgori ljudi na svijetu,
16:08
they're troglodytes, they're racists,
they're the worst people in the world,
a vi imate sve činjenice
koje to podupiru.
16:11
and you have all the facts
to back that up.
No, netko u kući do vaše
16:13
But somebody in the next house from yours
živi u drugačijoj moralnoj matrici.
16:16
is living in a different moral matrix.
Oni žive u drugačijoj video igri,
16:18
They live in a different video game,
i vide potpuno drugačiji skup činjenica.
16:20
and they see a completely
different set of facts.
I svatko vidi drugačije
prijetnje po zemlju.
16:22
And each one sees
different threats to the country.
A ono što sam ja ustanovio,
kao osoba u sredini
16:25
And what I've found
from being in the middle
koja pokušava razumijeti obje strane,
jest: obje strane su u pravu.
16:27
and trying to understand both sides
is: both sides are right.
16:30
There are a lot of threats
to this country,
Mnogo je prijetnji ovoj zemlji,
a svaka je strana konstitucionalno
nesposobna vidjeti sve njih.
16:32
and each side is constitutionally
incapable of seeing them all.
CA: Želite li reći da gotovo pa
trebamo novu vrstu empatije?
16:36
CA: So, are you saying
that we almost need a new type of empathy?
Empatija se tradicionalno opisuje kao:
16:43
Empathy is traditionally framed as:
"Oh, osjećam tvoju bol.
Mogu se staviti u tvoju kožu."
16:45
"Oh, I feel your pain.
I can put myself in your shoes."
16:48
And we apply it to the poor,
the needy, the suffering.
I to primjenjujemo na siromašne,
potrebite, one koji pate.
Obično to ne primjenjujemo
na ljude koje osjećamo kao druge
16:52
We don't usually apply it
to people who we feel as other,
ili koji su nam odvratni.
16:55
or we're disgusted by.
JH: Ne. To je točno.
16:57
JH: No. That's right.
CA: Kako bi to izgledalo
da izgradimo tu vrstu empatije?
16:58
CA: What would it look like
to build that type of empathy?
JH: Ustvari, mislim ...
17:04
JH: Actually, I think ...
Empatija je vrlo, vrlo
aktualna tema u psihologiji,
17:06
Empathy is a very, very
hot topic in psychology,
i ta je riječ vrlo popularna,
naročito na ljevici.
17:08
and it's a very popular word
on the left in particular.
Empatija je dobra stvar
17:11
Empathy is a good thing, and empathy
for the preferred classes of victims.
i empatija za
preferencijalne klase žrtava.
Dakle, važno je osjećati empatiju
17:15
So it's important to empathize
17:16
with the groups that we on the left
think are so important.
za grupe koje mi na ljevici
smatramo tako važnima.
To je lako jer za to dobivate bodove.
17:19
That's easy to do,
because you get points for that.
No empatija bi vam zapravo
trebala donositi bodove
17:22
But empathy really should get you points
if you do it when it's hard to do.
ako je osjećate
kada ju je teško osjećati.
17:26
And, I think ...
I ja mislim ...
17:28
You know, we had a long 50-year period
of dealing with our race problems
Znate, mi smo imali dugo
50-godišnje razdoblje
suočavanja s rasnim problemima
i pravnom diskriminacijom
17:33
and legal discrimination,
i to je bio naš vrhunski prioritet
dugo vremena
17:35
and that was our top priority
for a long time
i još uvijek je važan.
17:37
and it still is important.
No, mislim da ove godine,
17:39
But I think this year,
nadam se da će ovo
ljude primorati da uvide
17:40
I'm hoping it will make people see
da imamo egistencijalnu
prijetnju na vratu.
17:43
that we have an existential
threat on our hands.
Vjerujem da je naša lijevo-desna podjela
17:45
Our left-right divide, I believe,
daleko najvažnija podjela
s kojom se suočavamo.
17:48
is by far the most important
divide we face.
Još uvijek imamo probleme u vezi
rase, spola i LGBT,
17:50
We still have issues about race
and gender and LGBT,
no ovo je hitna nužda zadnjih 50 godina,
17:53
but this is the urgent need
of the next 50 years,
i stvari se neće popraviti same od sebe.
17:57
and things aren't going
to get better on their own.
Zato ćemo morati provesti
mnogo ustavnih reformi
18:01
So we're going to need to do
a lot of institutional reforms,
i o tome možemo govoriti,
18:03
and we could talk about that,
no to je cijeli jedan
dugačak i zapetljan razgovor.
18:05
but that's like a whole long,
wonky conversation.
No, ja mislim da to započinje kada
ljudi shvate da je ovo prekretnica.
18:07
But I think it starts with people
realizing that this is a turning point.
I da, treba nam nova vrsta empatije.
18:11
And yes, we need a new kind of empathy.
Mi moramo shvatiti:
18:14
We need to realize:
to je ono što naša zemlja treba
18:15
this is what our country needs,
i to je ono što vi trebate
ako ne želite --
18:17
and this is what you need
if you don't want to --
Podignite ruku ako želite
sljedeće četiri godine provesti
18:19
Raise your hand if you want
to spend the next four years
ovako ljuti i zabrinuti kao što
ste bili prošle godine -- dignite ruku.
18:22
as angry and worried as you've been
for the last year -- raise your hand.
Pa, ako želite od toga pobjeći,
18:26
So if you want to escape from this,
čitajte Budu, čitajte Isusa,
čitajte Marka Aurelija.
18:27
read Buddha, read Jesus,
read Marcus Aurelius.
Oni imaju gomilu raznih savjeta
kako odagnati strah,
18:29
They have all kinds of great advice
for how to drop the fear,
preustrojiti stvari,
18:35
reframe things,
prestati druge ljude gledati
kao svoje neprijatelje.
18:36
stop seeing other people as your enemy.
U drevnoj mudrosti ima mnogo
smjernica za ovu vrstu empatije.
18:38
There's a lot of guidance in ancient
wisdom for this kind of empathy.
CA: Evo mog zadnjeg pitanja:
18:41
CA: Here's my last question:
Osobno, što ljudi mogu učiniti
da pomognu ozdravljenju?
18:43
Personally, what can
people do to help heal?
JH: Vrlo je teško jednostavno odlučiti
prevladati najdublje predrasude.
18:47
JH: Yeah, it's very hard to just decide
to overcome your deepest prejudices.
A postoji i istraživanje koje pokazuje
18:51
And there's research showing
da su političke predrasude dublje
i jače od rasnih predrasuda
18:53
that political prejudices are deeper
and stronger than race prejudices
danas u našoj zemlji.
18:57
in the country now.
Zato mislim da se morate potruditi --
to je glavna stvar.
18:59
So I think you have to make an effort --
that's the main thing.
Potrudite se da
stvarno nekoga upoznate.
19:02
Make an effort to actually meet somebody.
19:04
Everybody has a cousin, a brother-in-law,
Svatko ima bratića, šogora,
nekoga tko je na drugoj strani.
19:07
somebody who's on the other side.
Pa, nakon ovih izbora --
19:09
So, after this election --
pričekajte tjedan ili dva,
19:11
wait a week or two,
jer će to vjerojatno teško
pasti jednom od vas --
19:12
because it's probably going to feel
awful for one of you --
no pričekajte par tjedana
i onda pružite ruku
19:15
but wait a couple weeks, and then
reach out and say you want to talk.
i kažite da želite razgovarati.
19:19
And before you do it,
Ali prije no što to učinite,
pročitajte Dalea Carnegia
19:21
read Dale Carnegie, "How to Win
Friends and Influence People" --
"Kako steći prijatelje
i utjecati na ljude" --
19:24
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
Potpuno sam ozbiljan.
19:25
I'm totally serious.
Naučit ćete metode ako
započnete prihvaćanjem,
19:26
You'll learn techniques
if you start by acknowledging,
ako započnete govoreći,
19:29
if you start by saying,
"Znaš, mi se u mnogo toga
ne slažemo,
19:30
"You know, we don't agree on a lot,
ali jednu stvar zbilja
poštujem kod tebe, ujače Bob,"
19:32
but one thing I really respect
about you, Uncle Bob,"
ili "... u vezi vas konzervativaca ..."
19:34
or "... about you conservatives, is ... "
I možete pronaći nešto.
19:36
And you can find something.
Ako započnete s malo uvažavanja,
to je kao čarolija.
19:38
If you start with some
appreciation, it's like magic.
To je jedna od glavnih stvari
koje sam naučio
19:40
This is one of the main
things I've learned
unijeti u svoje međuljudske odnose.
19:42
that I take into my human relationships.
Još uvijek radim mnogo glupih grešaka
19:44
I still make lots of stupid mistakes,
ali sam sada njevjerojatno dobar
u ispričavanju
19:46
but I'm incredibly good
at apologizing now,
19:48
and at acknowledging what
somebody was right about.
i u priznavanju
da je netko bio u pravu.
I ako to učinite,
19:51
And if you do that,
onda razgovor teče zbilja dobro
i ustvari je zabavan.
19:52
then the conversation goes really well,
and it's actually really fun.
CA: Jon, zaista je fascinantno
pričati s tobom.
19:56
CA: Jon, it's absolutely fascinating
speaking with you.
Stvarno se čini da teren
na kojem se nalazimo
19:59
It's really does feel like
the ground that we're on
je teren napučen dubokim pitanjima
morala i ljudske prirode.
20:03
is a ground populated by deep questions
of morality and human nature.
Tvoja mudrost ne može biti relevantnija.
20:08
Your wisdom couldn't be more relevant.
Puno ti hvala za ovo vrijeme
koje si podijelio s nama.
20:10
Thank you so much for sharing
this time with us.
20:13
JH: Thanks, Chris.
JH: Hvala, Chris.
JH: Hvala svima.
20:14
JH: Thanks, everyone.
(Pljesak)
20:15
(Applause)
Translated by Djurdjica Ercegovac
Reviewed by Ivan Stamenkovic

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About the speakers:

Jonathan Haidt - Social psychologist
Jonathan Haidt studies how -- and why -- we evolved to be moral. By understanding more about our moral roots, his hope is that we can learn to be civil and open-minded.

Why you should listen

Haidt is a social psychologist whose research on morality across cultures led up to his much-quoted 2008 TEDTalk on the psychological roots of the American culture war. He asks, "Can't we all disagree more constructively?" In September 2009, Jonathan Haidt spoke to the TED Blog about the moral psychology behind the healthcare debate in the United States. He's also active in the study of positive psychology and human flourishing.

At TED2012 he explored the intersection of his work on morality with his work on happiness to talk about “hive psychology” – the ability that humans have to lose themselves in groups pursuing larger projects, almost like bees in a hive. This hivish ability Is crucial, he argues, for understanding the origins of morality, politics, and religion. These are ideas that Haidt develops at greater length in his new book, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion. Learn more about his drive for a more productive and civil politics on his website CivilPolitics.org. And take an eye-opening quiz about your own morals at YourMorals.org

During the bruising 2012 political season, Haidt was invited to speak at TEDxMidAtlantic on the topic of civility. He developed the metaphor of The Asteroids Club to embody how we can reach. common groun. Learn how to start your own Asteroids Club at www.AsteroidsClub.org.

Watch Haidt talk about the Asteroids Club on MSNBC's The Cycle >>

More profile about the speaker
Jonathan Haidt | Speaker | TED.com
Chris Anderson - TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading.

Why you should listen

Chris Anderson is the Curator of TED, a nonprofit devoted to sharing valuable ideas, primarily through the medium of 'TED Talks' -- short talks that are offered free online to a global audience.

Chris was born in a remote village in Pakistan in 1957. He spent his early years in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, where his parents worked as medical missionaries, and he attended an American school in the Himalayas for his early education. After boarding school in Bath, England, he went on to Oxford University, graduating in 1978 with a degree in philosophy, politics and economics.

Chris then trained as a journalist, working in newspapers and radio, including two years producing a world news service in the Seychelles Islands.

Back in the UK in 1984, Chris was captivated by the personal computer revolution and became an editor at one of the UK's early computer magazines. A year later he founded Future Publishing with a $25,000 bank loan. The new company initially focused on specialist computer publications but eventually expanded into other areas such as cycling, music, video games, technology and design, doubling in size every year for seven years. In 1994, Chris moved to the United States where he built Imagine Media, publisher of Business 2.0 magazine and creator of the popular video game users website IGN. Chris eventually merged Imagine and Future, taking the combined entity public in London in 1999, under the Future name. At its peak, it published 150 magazines and websites and employed 2,000 people.

This success allowed Chris to create a private nonprofit organization, the Sapling Foundation, with the hope of finding new ways to tackle tough global issues through media, technology, entrepreneurship and, most of all, ideas. In 2001, the foundation acquired the TED Conference, then an annual meeting of luminaries in the fields of Technology, Entertainment and Design held in Monterey, California, and Chris left Future to work full time on TED.

He expanded the conference's remit to cover all topics, including science, business and key global issues, while adding a Fellows program, which now has some 300 alumni, and the TED Prize, which grants its recipients "one wish to change the world." The TED stage has become a place for thinkers and doers from all fields to share their ideas and their work, capturing imaginations, sparking conversation and encouraging discovery along the way.

In 2006, TED experimented with posting some of its talks on the Internet. Their viral success encouraged Chris to begin positioning the organization as a global media initiative devoted to 'ideas worth spreading,' part of a new era of information dissemination using the power of online video. In June 2015, the organization posted its 2,000th talk online. The talks are free to view, and they have been translated into more than 100 languages with the help of volunteers from around the world. Viewership has grown to approximately one billion views per year.

Continuing a strategy of 'radical openness,' in 2009 Chris introduced the TEDx initiative, allowing free licenses to local organizers who wished to organize their own TED-like events. More than 8,000 such events have been held, generating an archive of 60,000 TEDx talks. And three years later, the TED-Ed program was launched, offering free educational videos and tools to students and teachers.

More profile about the speaker
Chris Anderson | Speaker | TED.com