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TEDGlobal 2010

Sheena Iyengar: The art of choosing

シ―ナ・アイアンガ―: 選択術

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シーナ・アイアンガーは人が選択する方法や傾向、感情を研究しています。TEDGlobalでは、コーラVSペプシといった日常的な選択からシリアスなものに渡り、選択における 驚くべき見解を明らかにします。

- Psycho-economist
Sheena Iyengar studies how people choose (and what makes us think we're good at it). Full bio

今日は18分間
00:22
Today, I'm going to take you
みなさんを世界に案内します
00:24
around the world in 18 minutes.
私の活動ベースは米国ですが
00:26
My base of operations is in the U.S.,
まずは 遠く離れた―
00:29
but let's start at the other end of the map,
京都での話から始めます
00:31
in Kyoto, Japan,
日本人家庭に下宿し
00:33
where I was living with a Japanese family
学位論文の調査をしていました
00:36
while I was doing part of my dissertational research
15年前のことです
00:38
15 years ago.
カルチャーショックや誤解を
00:41
I knew even then that I would encounter
経験するとは思っていましたが
00:43
cultural differences and misunderstandings,
予想もしない形で訪れました
00:45
but they popped up when I least expected it.
日本到着の1日目
00:48
On my first day,
レストランに入り
00:50
I went to a restaurant,
“砂糖入り”の緑茶をオーダー
00:52
and I ordered a cup of green tea with sugar.
ウェイターが一瞬戸惑い 言いました
00:54
After a pause, the waiter said,
“緑茶に砂糖は入れません”
00:56
"One does not put sugar in green tea."
“その習慣は知っていますが
01:00
"I know," I said. "I'm aware of this custom.
甘い緑茶が好きなんです”
01:02
But I really like my tea sweet."
前よりも礼儀正しい口調で
01:05
In response, he gave me an even more courteous version
同じことを言われました
01:08
of the same explanation.
“緑茶には…
01:10
"One does not put sugar
砂糖を入れませんので…”
01:12
in green tea."
“日本人が無糖で飲むのは
01:15
"I understand," I said,
十分存じていますが
01:17
"that the Japanese do not put sugar in their green tea,
わたくしは
01:19
but I'd like to put some sugar
砂糖を入れるんです”
01:21
in my green tea."
(会場の笑い声)
01:23
(Laughter)
私がしつこいので
01:25
Surprised by my insistence,
彼は困って 店長のもとへ
01:27
the waiter took up the issue with the manager.
すると間もなく
01:29
Pretty soon,
彼らは長い話し合いをし
01:31
a lengthy discussion ensued,
最終的に店長が謝りに来ました
01:33
and finally the manager came over to me and said,
“あいにく 砂糖がございません...”
01:36
"I am very sorry. We do not have sugar."
(会場の笑い声)
01:39
(Laughter)
私好みの緑茶がないので
01:41
Well, since I couldn't have my tea the way I wanted it,
コーヒーを頼みました
01:44
I ordered a cup of coffee,
すぐさま コーヒーが運ばれ
01:46
which the waiter brought over promptly.
そこで見たのは
01:48
Resting on the saucer
2袋の砂糖!
01:50
were two packets of sugar.
私の注文 甘い緑茶が
01:53
My failure to procure myself
通らなかった原因は
01:56
a cup of sweet, green tea
単純な誤解ではありません
01:58
was not due to a simple misunderstanding.
選択に対する双方の
02:01
This was due to a fundamental difference
根本的な考え方の違いです
02:03
in our ideas about choice.
米国人の考え方では
02:06
From my American perspective,
お客さんが好みに基づいた
02:08
when a paying customer makes a reasonable request
分別ある要求をする限り
02:10
based on her preferences,
叶えてもらう権利があります
02:12
she has every right to have that request met.
バーガーキング曰く
02:15
The American way, to quote Burger King,
“自己流で召し上がれ”
02:17
is to "have it your way,"
スタバ 曰く
02:19
because, as Starbucks says,
“幸せは選択肢にある”
02:21
"happiness is in your choices."
(会場の笑い声)
02:23
(Laughter)
でも 日本人の考えでは
02:25
But from the Japanese perspective,
無知な人を護るのは
02:28
it's their duty to protect those who don't know any better --
我らの務め
(会場の笑い声)
02:31
(Laughter)
この場合 無知なガイジンを
02:33
in this case, the ignorant gaijin --
誤った選択から護ること
02:35
from making the wrong choice.
私好みの緑茶は
02:38
Let's face it: the way I wanted my tea
文化的基準に不適切
02:40
was inappropriate according to cultural standards,
私の面子を保とうと
02:43
and they were doing their best to help me save face.
彼らは努めました
02:46
Americans tend to believe
反して 米国人は
選択術の頂点を
02:48
that they've reached some sort of pinnacle
極めていると考えがち
02:50
in the way they practice choice.
すべての人間は先天的に
02:52
They think that choice, as seen through the American lens
選択肢を求めるものだと―
02:55
best fulfills an innate and universal
米国人は思っています
02:57
desire for choice in all humans.
残念ながら
03:00
Unfortunately,
それは思い込みであり
03:02
these beliefs are based on assumptions
異なる国や文化では
03:04
that don't always hold true
当てはまらないこともあります
03:06
in many countries, in many cultures.
米国においてですら
03:09
At times they don't even hold true
時には当てはまりません
03:11
at America's own borders.
これらの思い込みと
03:13
I'd like to discuss some of these assumptions
それに伴う問題について話します
03:15
and the problems associated with them.
みなさんも ご自分の思い込みや
03:18
As I do so, I hope you'll start thinking
それが形成された過程を
03:20
about some of your own assumptions
一緒に考えてみてください
03:22
and how they were shaped by your backgrounds.
1つめの思い込み
03:25
First assumption:
“選択が自分に影響をもたらすなら
03:27
if a choice affects you,
自分が選択するべきだ
03:29
then you should be the one to make it.
己の優先事項や利益を
03:31
This is the only way to ensure
最大限 反映させるには
03:33
that your preferences and interests
自ら 選択するしかない”
03:35
will be most fully accounted for.
成功には不可欠です
03:38
It is essential for success.
米国では 第一の選択権は
03:41
In America, the primary locus of choice
個人にあります
03:44
is the individual.
自分で選択するのが当たり前
03:46
People must choose for themselves, sometimes sticking to their guns,
人に左右されず信念を守る
03:49
regardless of what other people want or recommend.
自分に正直に生きる
03:52
It's called "being true to yourself."
でも この選択方法が
03:55
But do all individuals benefit
万人に有利と言えるでしょうか
03:57
from taking such an approach to choice?
マーク リッパーと共に
04:00
Mark Lepper and I did a series of studies
この疑問を解く調査をしました
04:02
in which we sought the answer to this very question.
このリサーチで
04:05
In one study,
サンフランシスコの日本人街に行き
04:07
which we ran in Japantown, San Francisco,
7~9歳の白人系とアジア系米国人を
04:10
we brought seven- to nine-year-old Anglo- and Asian-American children
研究所に呼び
04:13
into the laboratory,
子供を3グループに分けました
04:15
and we divided them up into three groups.
第1グループに
04:17
The first group came in,
スミスを紹介し
04:19
and they were greeted by Miss Smith,
6つの文字並べ替えパズルを見せました
04:21
who showed them six big piles of anagram puzzles.
子供は 好きなパズルを選択
04:24
The kids got to choose which pile of anagrams they would like to do,
答えを書くマーカーペンまで
04:27
and they even got to choose which marker
選択できます
04:29
they would write their answers with.
第2グループが同じ部屋で
04:31
When the second group of children came in,
同じパズルを見せられます
04:33
they were brought to the same room, shown the same anagrams,
でも今回はスミスが
04:36
but this time Miss Smith told them
どのパズルをするか
04:38
which anagrams to do
どのマーカーを使うかを指示
04:40
and which markers to write their answers with.
第3グループは
04:43
Now when the third group came in,
母親が決めたパズルとマーカーを
04:46
they were told that their anagrams and their markers
使うよう指示されます
04:49
had been chosen by their mothers.
(会場の笑い声)
04:51
(Laughter)
実際には
04:53
In reality,
スミス または母親に
04:55
the kids who were told what to do,
指示を受けたとは言え
04:57
whether by Miss Smith or their mothers,
作業はまったく同じ
04:59
were actually given the very same activity,
第1グループだけは
05:01
which their counterparts in the first group
選択の自由がありました
05:03
had freely chosen.
この手順で 3グループに
05:05
With this procedure, we were able to ensure
同じ作業を与え
05:07
that the kids across the three groups
成果を比較しやすいように
05:09
all did the same activity,
アレンジしました
05:11
making it easier for us to compare performance.
小さな差を設けただけですが
05:14
Such small differences in the way we administered the activity
子供の成果に
05:17
yielded striking differences
目を見張る差がでました
05:19
in how well they performed.
白人系米国人は
05:21
Anglo-Americans,
自分でパズルを選んだ場合
05:23
they did two and a half times more anagrams
2.5倍もの量を解きました
05:26
when they got to choose them,
このデータは
05:28
as compared to when it was
スミスや母親が決めた時との比較です
05:30
chosen for them by Miss Smith or their mothers.
誰が選ぶかには関係なく
05:33
It didn't matter who did the choosing,
他人から命令されると
05:36
if the task was dictated by another,
能力が落ちました
05:38
their performance suffered.
母親が決めたと言うと
05:40
In fact, some of the kids were visibly embarrassed
露骨に恥ずかしがる子もいました
05:43
when they were told that their mothers had been consulted.
(会場の笑い声)
05:46
(Laughter)
メアリーという子が言いました
05:48
One girl named Mary said,
“なんで ママに聞くわけ?”
05:50
"You asked my mother?"
(会場の笑い声)
05:53
(Laughter)
それと反対に
05:55
In contrast,
アジア系米国人の子供は
05:57
Asian-American children
母親が選んだ時
05:59
performed best when they believed
最もよく出来ました
06:01
their mothers had made the choice,
2番目が自分で選択した時
06:04
second best when they chose for themselves,
最下がスミスが選んだ時でした
06:07
and least well when it had been chosen by Miss Smith.
なつみという子は
06:10
A girl named Natsumi
別れ際 スミスに駆け寄り
06:12
even approached Miss Smith as she was leaving the room
ぴったり くっついて言いました
06:14
and tugged on her skirt and asked,
“ママの言う通りにしたって
06:16
"Could you please tell my mommy
ママに伝えてくれる?”
06:18
I did it just like she said?"
二世である子供は 選択において
06:22
The first-generation children were strongly influenced
移民である両親から
06:25
by their immigrant parents'
強い影響を受けていました
06:27
approach to choice.
彼らにとって 選択とは
06:29
For them, choice was not just a way
個性の明示や主張の
06:31
of defining and asserting
手段だけでなく
06:33
their individuality,
信用し尊敬する人たちに
06:35
but a way to create community and harmony
選択をゆだねることで
06:37
by deferring to the choices
社会や調和を築く手段でもあります
06:39
of people whom they trusted and respected.
“自分に正直に”という考えを持つとすれば
06:42
If they had a concept of being true to one's self,
おそらく 彼らの“自己”は
06:45
then that self, most likely,
個人ではなく
06:47
[was] composed, not of an individual,
集団的なものでしょう
06:49
but of a collective.
大切な人を喜ばせることは
06:51
Success was just as much about pleasing key figures
自分自身の望みを
06:54
as it was about satisfying
満たすことに匹敵する
06:56
one's own preferences.
言葉を変えれば
06:58
Or, you could say that
個人の選択傾向は
07:00
the individual's preferences were shaped
特定の人の望みによって形成されている
07:02
by the preferences of specific others.
自分が下す決断が
07:06
The assumption then that we do best
最も正しいという思い込みが
07:08
when the individual self chooses
成り立つのは
07:10
only holds
自己が明らかに
07:12
when that self
他者から隔てられているときのみ
07:14
is clearly divided from others.
それに反して
07:17
When, in contrast,
何名かの選択と成果が
07:19
two or more individuals
何名かの選択と成果が
07:21
see their choices and their outcomes
絡み合っている場合
07:23
as intimately connected,
共同体として選択することで
07:25
then they may amplify one another's success
互いの達成感が
07:28
by turning choosing
高まることがあります
07:30
into a collective act.
逆に 個人の選択に徹すれば
07:32
To insist that they choose independently
互いの能力や関係まで
07:35
might actually compromise
損なう結果になりかねません
07:37
both their performance
されど これが
07:39
and their relationships.
アメリカの模範
07:41
Yet that is exactly what
相互存存をほとんど認めず
07:43
the American paradigm demands.
人間の不完全性に対する
07:45
It leaves little room for interdependence
認識に欠けています
07:48
or an acknowledgment of individual fallibility.
選択は 私的なもので
07:51
It requires that everyone treat choice
自ら定める行為だと見なされる
07:54
as a private and self-defining act.
このような模範の中で育った人なら
07:58
People that have grown up in such a paradigm
刺激を感じるでしょう
08:00
might find it motivating,
でも 誰もがプレッシャーの中
08:02
but it is a mistake to assume
一人で選択しながら
08:04
that everyone thrives under the pressure
成長すると思うのは間違いです
08:06
of choosing alone.
米国人が持つ―
08:09
The second assumption which informs the American view of choice
2つ目の思い込み
08:12
goes something like this.
“選択肢が
08:14
The more choices you have,
多ければ多いほど
08:16
the more likely you are
最高の決断をする”
08:18
to make the best choice.
ウォールマートには10万の品数
08:20
So bring it on, Walmart, with 100,000 different products,
アマゾンには2700万冊の本
08:23
and Amazon, with 27 million books
出会いサイト Match.comでは
08:26
and Match.com with -- what is it? --
現在 1500万人の登録者
08:28
15 million date possibilities now.
それゃ最高のパートナーが見つかるでしょう
08:32
You will surely find the perfect match.
東ヨーロッパを例に
08:35
Let's test this assumption
この思い込みをテストしましょう
08:37
by heading over to Eastern Europe.
インタビューを行いました
08:39
Here, I interviewed people
共産主義から
08:41
who were residents of formerly communist countries,
民主的かつ資本主義への
08:44
who had all faced the challenge
移行を経験した人を
08:46
of transitioning to a more
集めて話を聞きました
08:48
democratic and capitalistic society.
興味深い事実は
08:51
One of the most interesting revelations
インタビュー中ではなく
08:53
came not from an answer to a question,
単なる もてなしの場で発見しました
08:55
but from a simple gesture of hospitality.
参加者がインタビューに現れたとき
08:58
When the participants arrived for their interview,
飲み物を勧めました
09:01
I offered them a set of drinks:
コーラやスプライトなど
09:03
Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite --
全部で7種類のソーダ
09:05
seven, to be exact.
最初のインタビューは
09:07
During the very first session,
ロシアで行いました
09:09
which was run in Russia,
参加者の一人が言ったことに
09:11
one of the participants made a comment
不意を突かれました
09:13
that really caught me off guard.
“どれでもいいです
09:16
"Oh, but it doesn't matter.
結局どれも炭酸飲料ですから”
09:18
It's all just soda. That's just one choice."
(会場のざわめき)
09:21
(Murmuring)
このコメントに衝撃を受け
09:23
I was so struck by this comment that from then on,
全員に7種のソーダを
09:25
I started to offer all the participants
勧め始めました
09:27
those seven sodas,
選択肢はいくつかと
09:29
and I asked them, "How many choices are these?"
皆に尋ねました
09:32
Again and again,
彼らは7種のソーダを7つの選択肢ではなく
09:34
they perceived these seven different sodas,
1つのものとして
09:37
not as seven choices, but as one choice:
見ていました
09:40
soda or no soda.
果汁ジュースと水を
09:42
When I put out juice and water
7種のソーダに加えたら
09:44
in addition to these seven sodas,
選択肢は3つと言いました
09:46
now they perceived it as only three choices --
果汁ジュースと水とソーダ
09:48
juice, water and soda.
これに比べ 米国人の多くは
09:51
Compare this to the die-hard devotion of many Americans,
ソーダのフレーバーだけでなく
09:54
not just to a particular flavor of soda,
ブランドにも とことん こだわります
09:57
but to a particular brand.
調査結果が示すように
09:59
You know, research shows repeatedly
消費者はコーラとペプシを
10:02
that we can't actually tell the difference
実際には 区別できません
10:04
between Coke and Pepsi.
もちろん 会場の私たちは
10:06
Of course, you and I know
コーラのほうがよいと分かってる
10:08
that Coke is the better choice.
(会場の笑い声)
10:10
(Laughter)
他国に比べても
10:16
For modern Americans who are exposed
現代の米国は 選択肢や
10:18
to more options and more ads associated with options
広告で飽和しています
10:21
than anyone else in the world,
自ら選択した商品は
10:23
choice is just as much about who they are
自らの存在を表しているようなもの
10:25
as it is about what the product is.
“多いほどベター”という思い込みを加えると
10:28
Combine this with the assumption that more choices are always better,
細部にこだわり 全ての選択は重要―
10:31
and you have a group of people for whom every little difference matters
そんなグループが成立します
10:34
and so every choice matters.
でも 東欧人にしてみれば
10:36
But for Eastern Europeans,
突然 店頭に並んだ―
10:39
the sudden availability of all these
数々の商品は圧倒的
10:41
consumer products on the marketplace was a deluge.
泳げないと反論する間もなく
10:44
They were flooded with choice
選択の海に投げこまれたようなもの
10:46
before they could protest that they didn't know how to swim.
選択という言葉で 何を連想するか―
10:50
When asked, "What words and images
ワルシャワ出身の
10:52
do you associate with choice?"
グレゴアさんに尋ねました
10:54
Grzegorz from Warsaw said,
“私には恐怖です
10:57
"Ah, for me it is fear.
ジレンマを抱いています
10:59
There are some dilemmas you see.
選択するのに慣れてませんから”
11:01
I am used to no choice."
キエフ出身のボーディンさんは
11:03
Bohdan from Kiev said,
新しい消費者市場に対し
11:05
in response to how he felt about
こんな意見を述べました
11:07
the new consumer marketplace,
“限度を超えている
11:09
"It is too much.
こんなに多くの商品は必要ない”
11:11
We do not need everything that is there."
ワルシャワ調査局の
11:13
A sociologist from
社会学者はこう説明しました
11:15
the Warsaw Survey Agency explained,
“年配の世代は 何もない社会から
11:18
"The older generation jumped from nothing
選択の社会に飛び込びました
11:21
to choice all around them.
彼らは どう対応していいのか
11:23
They were never given a chance to learn
学ぶ機会がなかったのです”
11:25
how to react."
若いポーランド人 トーマス曰く
11:27
And Tomasz, a young Polish man said,
“20種類のガムなど必要ない
11:30
"I don't need twenty kinds of chewing gum.
選択肢は要らないという意味ではないが
11:33
I don't mean to say that I want no choice,
見せかけの選択肢が多いと思う”
11:36
but many of these choices are quite artificial."
実際に 多くの選択肢には
11:40
In reality, many choices are between things
たいした差はありません
11:43
that are not that much different.
選択の価値は
11:47
The value of choice
数ある中から違いを見出す―
11:49
depends on our ability
我々の能力に
11:51
to perceive differences
左右されます
11:53
between the options.
米国人は一生涯を通して
11:55
Americans train their whole lives
違いを見出す訓練をしています
11:57
to play "spot the difference."
幼い頃から 訓練してますから
12:00
They practice this from such an early age
先天的に持つ能力だと
12:02
that they've come to believe that everyone
米国人は思っています
12:04
must be born with this ability.
人間は皆 選択に対し
12:06
In fact, though all humans share
基本的なニーズや欲望を持っていますが
12:08
a basic need and desire for choice,
誰もが 同じ環境または度合いで
12:11
we don't all see choice in the same places
選択をとらえる訳ではありません
12:14
or to the same extent.
複数の選択肢に
12:16
When someone can't see how one choice
違いを見出せない
12:18
is unlike another,
比較するには選択肢が多すぎる
12:20
or when there are too many choices to compare and contrast,
そんな時 選択という行為は
12:23
the process of choosing can be
複雑で ストレスの原因になります
12:25
confusing and frustrating.
よりよい選択をするどころか
12:28
Instead of making better choices,
困惑してしまいます
12:30
we become overwhelmed by choice,
時には 恐れすら感じます
12:32
sometimes even afraid of it.
選択が 好機をもたらすどころか
12:35
Choice no longer offers opportunities,
強要され 縛られます
12:37
but imposes constraints.
選択が象徴するものは
12:39
It's not a marker of liberation,
開放ではなく
12:41
but of suffocation
無意味でくだらない抑圧
12:43
by meaningless minutiae.
言い換えると
12:45
In other words,
心の準備ができてない人に
12:47
choice can develop into the very opposite
選択を強要すれば
12:49
of everything it represents
米国人がイメージする―
12:51
in America
選択のあらゆる要素が
12:53
when it is thrust upon those
まったく逆のものに変化し得るのです
12:55
who are insufficiently prepared for it.
増え続ける選択肢に
12:58
But it is not only other people
プレッシャーを感じているのは
13:00
in other places
他国の人だけではありません
13:02
that are feeling the pressure
米国人だって
13:04
of ever-increasing choice.
実際に 選択肢を多く持つよりも
13:06
Americans themselves are discovering
“無数の選択”という理論を
13:08
that unlimited choice
語るほうが魅力的―
13:10
seems more attractive in theory
そう 気づき始めています
13:12
than in practice.
人間は皆 身体的 精神的―
13:14
We all have physical, mental
感情的な限界があり
13:17
and emotional (Laughter) limitations
何から何まで
13:19
that make it impossible for us
選択するのは不可能
13:21
to process every single choice we encounter,
一生涯で行う―
13:24
even in the grocery store,
選択の数は莫大です
13:26
let alone over the course of our entire lives.
私の研究結果が示すように
13:29
A number of my studies have shown
10以上の選択肢を与えると
13:32
that when you give people 10 or more options
人間の決断力は鈍ります
13:34
when they're making a choice, they make poorer decisions,
健康保険であれ 投資であれ
13:37
whether it be health care, investment,
その他の重要な物事でもそうです
13:39
other critical areas.
それでも 多くの人は
13:41
Yet still, many of us believe
自分ですべて選択するべきだ
13:43
that we should make all our own choices
さらなる選択肢を探すべきだと言う
13:46
and seek out even more of them.
これが最も問題のある―
13:49
This brings me to the third,
3つ目の思い込みと関係します
13:52
and perhaps most problematic, assumption:
“選択肢を前に 決して
13:55
"You must never
背をむけてはならない”
13:57
say no to choice."
これを試すべく 米国に話を戻し
14:00
To examine this, let's go back to the U.S.
その後 フランスに移りましょう
14:02
and then hop across the pond to France.
シカゴの郊外で
14:05
Right outside Chicago,
若い夫婦 スーザンとダニエルに
14:08
a young couple, Susan and Daniel Mitchell,
一人目の子が誕生しようとしていました
14:10
were about to have their first baby.
赤ちゃんの名前も決めました
14:13
They'd already picked out a name for her,
祖母の名をとり バーバラ
14:15
Barbara, after her grandmother.
妊娠7ヶ月のある夜
14:18
One night, when Susan was seven months pregnant,
陣痛が始まり
14:21
she started to experience contractions
救急病院に急ぎました
14:23
and was rushed to the emergency room.
帝王切開で生まれた 娘のバーバラは
14:26
The baby was delivered through a C-section,
脳無酸素症でした
14:29
but Barbara suffered cerebral anoxia,
脳内の酸素不足です
14:31
a loss of oxygen to the brain.
自分では呼吸ができず
14:34
Unable to breathe on her own,
人工呼吸器を装着
14:36
she was put on a ventilator.
2日が経ち
14:38
Two days later,
ドクターはこの夫妻に
14:40
the doctors gave the Mitchells
選択肢を与えました
14:42
a choice:
生命維持装置を
14:44
They could either remove Barbara
外すべきか
14:46
off the life support,
この場合 娘は数時間で亡くなります
14:48
in which case she would die within a matter of hours,
もしくは 延命処置を続けるか
14:51
or they could keep her on life support,
この場合も 数日で
14:54
in which case she might still die
亡くなる可能性があります
14:56
within a matter of days.
生き延びたとしても
14:58
If she survived, she would remain
一生 植物状態のまま
15:00
in a permanent vegetative state,
歩くことも 話すことも
15:03
never able to walk, talk
人との交流も不可能
15:06
or interact with others.
この夫婦はどうしたでしょう?
15:09
What do they do?
一般的な親ならどうするでしょう?
15:11
What do any parent do?
二人の研究者と共に
15:17
In a study I conducted
リサーチを行い
15:19
with Simona Botti and Kristina Orfali,
米国人とフランス人の親を
15:21
American and French parents
インタビューしました
15:23
were interviewed.
彼らは 皆―
15:25
They had all suffered
同じ悲劇で苦しんだ人たち
15:27
the same tragedy.
どのケースも 生命維持装置は外され
15:29
In all cases, the life support was removed,
彼らの赤ちゃんは亡くなりました
15:32
and the infants had died.
でも 1つ大きな差がありました
15:34
But there was a big difference.
フランスでは 生命維持装置を外すべきか―
15:36
In France, the doctors decided whether and when
また その時期を決めるのは医師
15:39
the life support would be removed,
米国では
15:42
while in the United States,
最終決断を下すのは親
15:44
the final decision rested with the parents.
私たちは考えました
15:48
We wondered:
わが子の喪失と向き合う上で
15:50
does this have an effect on how the parents
この事実は 影響を及ぼすのか?
15:52
cope with the loss of their loved one?
影響していました
15:55
We found that it did.
1年経っても
15:58
Even up to a year later,
米国人の親は
16:00
American parents
否定的な感情を表す傾向がありました
16:02
were more likely to express negative emotions,
対して フランス人の親は
16:04
as compared to their French counterparts.
こんなことを言いました
16:07
French parents were more likely to say things like,
“息子との時間は 僅かだったけど
16:10
"Noah was here for so little time,
たくさんのことを教えてくれた
16:13
but he taught us so much.
新しい人生観を与えてくれた”
16:15
He gave us a new perspective on life."
米国人の親は こんなことを言いました
16:19
American parents were more likely to say things like,
“もし 他の選択をしていたら?”
16:22
"What if? What if?"
別の親の不満
16:25
Another parent complained,
“ドクターの意図的な拷問としか思えない
16:27
"I feel as if they purposefully tortured me.
なぜ あんな事を私にさせるの?”
16:30
How did they get me to do that?"
別の親の言葉
16:33
And another parent said,
“死刑執行に加担した―
16:35
"I feel as if I've played a role
そんな心境です”
16:37
in an execution."
でも 米国人の親は
16:40
But when the American parents were asked
ドクターが決断したほうが良かったかと
16:42
if they would rather have had
尋ねられると
16:44
the doctors make the decision,
全員 ノーと答えました
16:47
they all said, "No."
彼らには その選択を
16:49
They could not imagine
他者に委ねるなど考えられなかった
16:51
turning that choice over to another,
自分で選んだ結果 罪悪感や
16:53
even though having made that choice
怒りに苛まれたとしてもです
16:56
made them feel trapped,
怒りに苛まれたとしてもです
16:58
guilty, angry.
多くの人は
17:00
In a number of cases
うつ病と診断されていました
17:02
they were even clinically depressed.
なぜ 彼らは選択放棄を
17:05
These parents could not contemplate
熟思できなかったのか?
17:07
giving up the choice,
選択を放棄することは
17:09
because to do so would have gone contrary
今まで教わってきたことや
17:11
to everything they had been taught
選択が持つ目的や
17:14
and everything they had come to believe
選択が持つ力への
17:16
about the power
信念に反するからです
17:18
and purpose of choice.
ジョーン ディディオンのエッセイ―
17:21
In her essay, "The White Album,"
「60年代の過ぎた朝」から引用します
17:24
Joan Didion writes,
“人は生きるために
17:27
"We tell ourselves stories
物語に意味づけをする
17:29
in order to live.
現実を分析し
17:31
We interpret what we see,
多数の選択肢から
17:33
select the most workable
最も有効なものを選ぶ
17:35
of the multiple choices.
心に浮かぶ断片的な
17:37
We live entirely by the imposition
回想イメージを
17:39
of a narrative line
物語の筋書きにこじつけ
17:41
upon disparate images,
刻々と変わる情景を
17:43
by the idea with which we have learned to freeze
意識的に静止させながら
17:46
the shifting phantasmagoria,
我々は生きている”
17:48
which is our actual experience."
米国人が語る信念
17:53
The story Americans tell,
アメリカンドリームに基づいた―
17:55
the story upon which
アメリカンドリームに基づいた―
17:57
the American dream depends,
限りない選択の物語
17:59
is the story of limitless choice.
この物語は
18:02
This narrative
実に多くを保証します
18:04
promises so much:
自由や幸福
18:06
freedom, happiness,
そして成功
18:08
success.
揺ぎない世界を築き 語りかけます
18:10
It lays the world at your feet and says,
“何だって 手に入れられる”
18:13
"You can have anything, everything."
素晴しい物語です
18:17
It's a great story,
信念を貫きたいのも
18:19
and it's understandable why they would be reluctant
理解できます
18:21
to revise it.
でも 注意深く見てみると
18:24
But when you take a close look,
落とし穴が見えてきます
18:26
you start to see the holes,
この物語が色んな形で
18:28
and you start to see that the story
語ることができると気づき始めます
18:30
can be told in many other ways.
米国人は 何度も
18:33
Americans have so often tried to
米国の選択観を広めようとしました
18:35
disseminate their ideas of choice,
オープンな心と知性をもって
18:38
believing that they will be, or ought to be,
受け入れられるものだと信じて
18:41
welcomed with open hearts and minds.
しかし歴史書や新聞で見られるように
18:44
But the history books and the daily news tell us
そう うまくは行きません
18:47
it doesn't always work out that way.
刻々と変わる情景―
18:50
The phantasmagoria,
物語を通して 理解し
18:52
the actual experience that we try to understand
理由付ける行いは
18:54
and organize through narrative,
ところ変われば その姿を変えます
18:57
varies from place to place.
万人のニーズにかなう―
19:00
No single narrative serves the needs
物語は存在しません
19:02
of everyone everywhere.
また 米国人も
19:06
Moreover, Americans themselves
長年 選択を左右してきた―
19:09
could benefit from incorporating
自らの物語に
19:12
new perspectives into their own narrative,
新しい見方を取り込むことで
19:15
which has been driving their choices
恩恵を受けられます
19:17
for so long.
ロバート フロストの言葉
19:20
Robert Frost once said that,
“詩は 翻訳の過程で失われた”
19:23
"It is poetry that is lost in translation."
この言葉が示唆するのは
19:27
This suggests that
どんなに美しく 感動的で
19:29
whatever is beautiful and moving,
新しい見解をもたらす詩であろうが
19:31
whatever gives us a new way to see,
他の言語を話す人には
19:34
cannot be communicated to those
伝わらない ということ
19:36
who speak a different language.
反して ヨシフ ブロツキー曰く
19:39
But Joseph Brodsky said that,
“詩は 翻訳の過程で
19:41
"It is poetry
向上したのだ”
19:43
that is gained in translation,"
翻訳とは 創造的で
19:45
suggesting that translation
影響力のある行為だと
19:47
can be a creative,
示唆しています
19:49
transformative act.
選択に関して言えば
19:52
When it comes to choice,
多くの物語の翻訳物に関わることで
19:54
we have far more to gain than to lose
失うものよりも
19:57
by engaging in the many
得るものが多いのです
20:00
translations of the narratives.
物語を別のものに
20:03
Instead of replacing
取り替えるのではなく
20:05
one story with another,
既存する色んなバージョンや
20:07
we can learn from and revel in
今後書かれていくバージョンから
20:09
the many versions that exist
学び 楽しむことができるのです
20:12
and the many that have yet to be written.
どこで生まれようが
20:15
No matter where we're from
物語がなんであれ
20:18
and what your narrative is,
選択が持つ―
20:20
we all have a responsibility
幅広い可能性や
20:22
to open ourselves up to a wider array
数多くの意味に
20:24
of what choice can do,
心を開ける責任が我々にはあります
20:27
and what it can represent.
この考えが モラル相対主義を
20:30
And this does not lead to
麻痺させることはありません
20:32
a paralyzing moral relativism.
むしろ いつ どのように
20:35
Rather, it teaches us when
行動すべきか 教えてくれます
20:37
and how to act.
選択がもつ可能性に
20:39
It brings us that much closer
気づかせてくれます
20:41
to realizing the full potential of choice,
希望を吹き込み
20:44
to inspiring the hope
保証はあっても
20:46
and achieving the freedom
必ずしも実現しない―
20:48
that choice promises
自由の獲得へと近づきます
20:50
but doesn't always deliver.
たとえ 翻訳を通してでも
20:52
If we learn to speak to one another,
他者との交流を学べば
20:55
albeit through translation,
選択がいかに
20:58
then we can begin to see choice
奇妙で 複雑で
21:00
in all its strangeness,
絶対的な美しさを持つか
21:02
complexity
分かるはずです
21:05
and compelling beauty.
ありがとうございます
21:07
Thank you.
(会場の拍手)
21:09
(Applause)
ありがとうございました
21:20
Bruno Giussani: Thank you.
貴女に関することで パンフレットには
21:23
Sheena, there is a detail about your biography
書かれていないことがあります
21:26
that we have not written in the program book.
もうお気づきでしょうが 目が不自由です
21:28
But by now it's evident to everyone in this room. You're blind.
誰もが この疑問を抱いたと思います
21:31
And I guess one of the questions on everybody's mind is:
目の障害が どんな影響を及ぼすのか?
21:34
How does that influence your study of choosing
選択という行為は
21:37
because that's an activity
美的感覚や色など
21:39
that for most people is associated with visual inputs
視覚的な情報と関連していますよね?
21:42
like aesthetics and color and so on?
面白い質問ですね
21:46
Sheena Iyengar: Well, it's funny that you should ask that
盲目として生きてて 面白いことは
21:48
because one of the things that's interesting about being blind
目の見える人が選択するのを
21:51
is you actually get a different vantage point
観察する上で
21:53
when you observe the way
異なる利点があるんです
21:55
sighted people make choices.
おっしゃるように 視覚的な選択も
21:57
And as you just mentioned, there's lots of choices out there
最近ではたくさんあります
21:59
that are very visual these days.
察しはつくでしょうが
22:01
Yeah, I -- as you would expect --
選択で イライラすることもあります
22:03
get pretty frustrated by choices
例えば 色を選ぶとき
22:05
like what nail polish to put on
他人の提案に頼るしかなく
22:07
because I have to rely on what other people suggest.
自分では 決められません
22:09
And I can't decide.
ある日 マニキュア購入の際
22:11
And so one time I was in a beauty salon,
2色の薄ピンクで迷っていました
22:13
and I was trying to decide between two very light shades of pink.
1つ目の名前は “バレエ シューズ”
22:16
And one was called "Ballet Slippers."
もう1つは “可憐”
22:18
And the other one was called "Adorable."
(会場の笑い声)
22:21
(Laughter)
2人の女性に意見を求めました
22:23
And so I asked these two ladies,
1人のお勧めは “バレエ シューズ”
22:25
and the one lady told me, "Well, you should definitely wear 'Ballet Slippers.'"
“どんな色?”
22:27
"Well, what does it look like?"
“とてもエレガントなピンクよ”
22:29
"Well, it's a very elegant shade of pink."
“あら いいわね”
22:31
"Okay, great."
もう1人のお勧めは “可憐”
22:33
The other lady tells me to wear "Adorable."
“どんな色?”
22:35
"What does it look like?"
“華やかなピンクよ”
22:37
"It's a glamorous shade of pink."
今度は2人に尋ねました
22:41
And so I asked them, "Well, how do I tell them apart?
“2色の違いは何?”
22:43
What's different about them?"
“1つはエレガント もう片方は華やか”
22:45
And they said, "Well, one is elegant, the other one's glamorous."
さっきと同じ答えです
22:47
Okay, we got that.
2人の意見が一致したのは
22:49
And the only thing they had consensus on:
もし目が見えたら その違いが
22:51
well, if I could see them, I would
はっきりと分かるだろう ということ
22:53
clearly be able to tell them apart.
(会場の笑い)
22:55
(Laughter)
選択に影響を与えるのは
22:57
And what I wondered was whether they were being affected
名前の印象? それとも色?
23:00
by the name or the content of the color,
そこで 実験をしてみました
23:02
so I decided to do a little experiment.
研究室に 2本のマニキュアを持ち込み
23:05
So I brought these two bottles of nail polish into the laboratory,
ラベルをはがしました
23:08
and I stripped the labels off.
研究室に女性を呼び
23:10
And I brought women into the laboratory,
どちらを選ぶか尋ねました
23:12
and I asked them, "Which one would you pick?"
半数の人は 疑ってかかりました
23:14
50 percent of the women accused me of playing a trick,
私が2本に まったく同じ色を
23:17
of putting the same color nail polish
入れたんじゃないかと
23:19
in both those bottles.
(会場の笑い)
23:21
(Laughter)
(会場の拍手)
23:23
(Applause)
トリックにかかったのは誰でしょう?
23:27
At which point you start to wonder who the trick's really played on.
とにかく 色を区別できた人たちは
23:30
Now, of the women that could tell them apart,
ラベルなしだと “可憐”を選び
23:33
when the labels were off, they picked "Adorable,"
ラベルがあると
23:36
and when the labels were on,
“バレエ シューズ”を選びました
23:38
they picked "Ballet Slippers."
盲目の私に言えるのは
23:41
So as far as I can tell,
バラに 別の名を与えれば
23:43
a rose by any other name
花のイメージや
23:45
probably does look different
香りまで 変わるのでしょう
23:47
and maybe even smells different.
シーナさん ありがとうございました
23:50
BG: Thank you. Sheena Iyengar. Thank you Sheena.
(会場の拍手)
23:53
(Applause)
Translated by Aiko McLean
Reviewed by Takako Sato

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About the speaker:

Sheena Iyengar - Psycho-economist
Sheena Iyengar studies how people choose (and what makes us think we're good at it).

Why you should listen

We all think we're good at making choices; many of us even enjoy making them. Sheena Iyengar looks deeply at choosing and has discovered many surprising things about it. For instance, her famous "jam study," done while she was a grad student, quantified a counterintuitive truth about decisionmaking -- that when we're presented with too many choices, like 24 varieties of jam, we tend not to choose anything at all. (This and subsequent, equally ingenious experiments have provided rich material for Malcolm Gladwell and other pop chroniclers of business and the human psyche.)

Iyengar's research has been informing business and consumer-goods marketing since the 1990s. But she and her team at the Columbia Business School throw a much broader net. Her analysis touches, for example, on the medical decisionmaking that might lead up to choosing physician-assisted suicide, on the drawbacks of providing too many choices and options in social-welfare programs, and on the cultural and geographical underpinning of choice. Her book The Art of Choosing shares her research in an accessible and charming story that draws examples from her own life.

Watch a Facebook-exclusive short video from Sheena Iyengar: "Ballet Slippers" >>

More profile about the speaker
Sheena Iyengar | Speaker | TED.com