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TEDGlobal 2010

Jessa Gamble: Our natural sleep cycle is nothing like what we do now

ジェッサ・ギャンブル 「自然な睡眠周期」

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今日の世界では、学校や仕事、子育てやその他のことを両立させるために、推奨されている八時間の睡眠を取ることは夢です。ジェッサ・ギャンブルは、体内時計の科学に基づき、注目すべき睡眠の仕組みを明らかにします。

- Writer
Jessa Gamble writes about sleep and time, showing how our internal body clock struggles against our always-on global culture. Full bio

Let's start with day and night.
昼と夜の話から始めましょう
00:16
Life evolved under conditions
生命は光と闇が繰り返す
00:18
of light and darkness,
世界で進化してきました
00:20
light and then darkness.
明るくなり また暗くなります
00:22
And so plants and animals
そこで植物と動物は
00:24
developed their own internal clocks
自身の内部的な時計を
00:26
so that they would be ready for these changes in light.
光の変化に合うように発達させました
00:28
These are chemical clocks,
これらは化学的な時計で
00:30
and they're found in every known being that has two or more cells
多細胞生物全てが持っており
00:32
and in some that only have one cell.
単細胞生物の一部も持っています
00:35
I'll give you an example --
例を挙げましょう
00:38
if you take a horseshoe crab off the beach,
カブトガニを海岸でつかまえて
00:40
and you fly it all the way across the continent,
大陸の反対側へ飛行機で運びます
00:42
and you drop it into a sloped cage,
そして 傾斜のあるかごに入れます
00:44
it will scramble up the floor of the cage
自分のいたビーチの
00:47
as the tide is rising
潮が満ちてくると
00:49
on its home shores,
カニはかごをよじ登ろうとし
00:51
and it'll skitter down again right as the water is receding
何千マイルも離れたビーチの潮が引き始めると
00:53
thousands of miles away.
すぐに降りてきます
00:55
It'll do this for weeks,
徐々にコントロールを失うまで
00:58
until it kind of gradually loses the plot.
これを何週間も続けます
01:00
And it's incredible to watch,
信じられないようなことですが
01:03
but there's nothing psychic or paranormal going on;
超常現象ではありません
01:05
it's simply that these crabs have internal cycles
カニはただ 周りで起こることに対応した
01:07
that correspond, usually, with what's going on around it.
内部的な周期を持っているだけです
01:10
So, we have this ability as well.
そして 私たちにもこの能力はあります
01:15
And in humans, we call it the "body clock."
人間の場合は 体内時計と呼ばれています
01:17
You can see this most clearly when you take away someone's watch
体内時計をはっきり観察するには
01:20
and you shut them into a bunker, deep underground,
時計の無い 地下深くの穴ぐらに
01:23
for a couple of months. (Laughter)
誰かを二、三ヶ月間 閉じ込めてしまいます
01:26
People actually volunteer for this,
ボランティアが実験に協力しますが
01:28
and they usually come out
穴の中での生産的な生活に
01:30
kind of raving about their productive time in the hole.
大喜びで出てくるのが普通です
01:32
So, no matter how atypical these subjects would have to be,
不規則な睡眠パターンになりそうですが
01:34
they all show the same thing.
実際は決まったパターンになります
01:37
They get up just a little bit later every day -- say 15 minutes or so --
彼らは毎日ほんの少し 15分ほど遅く起きてきて
01:39
and they kind of drift all the way around the clock like this
何週間にも渡って こんな感じで
01:42
over the course of the weeks.
時の中を漂っていきます
01:45
And so, in this way we know that they are working on their own internal clocks,
この結果 どうにか外界を感知するのではなく
01:47
rather than somehow sensing the day outside.
自身の体内時計に基づき行動していると分かります
01:50
So fine, we have a body clock,
私たちは体内時計を持っており これは
01:54
and it turns out that it's incredibly important in our lives.
私たちの生活習慣に大変重要な意味を持っています
01:56
It's a huge driver for culture
体内時計は 文化に強く影響を与えており
01:59
and I think that it's the most underrated force on our behavior.
その力が著しく過小評価されていると思います
02:01
We evolved as a species near the equator,
私たちは赤道近くの種として進化しました
02:07
and so we're very well-equipped
それゆえ 12時間の昼間と
02:09
to deal with 12 hours of daylight
12時間の夜には
02:11
and 12 hours of darkness.
とてもうまく適応しています
02:13
But of course, we've spread to every corner of the globe
しかし 私たちは世界中の隅々に散らばっており
02:15
and in Arctic Canada, where I live,
私の住むカナダ北極圏では
02:17
we have perpetual daylight in summer
夏は白夜で一日中明るく
02:19
and 24 hours of darkness in winter.
冬は一日中暗いです
02:21
So the culture, the northern aboriginal culture,
そのため 北方先住民の文化は
02:24
traditionally has been highly seasonal.
昔からとても季節に影響をうけています
02:27
In winter, there's a lot of sleeping going on;
冬には長く眠り
02:29
you enjoy your family life inside.
屋内での家族生活を楽しみます
02:32
And in summer, it's almost manic hunting
夏になると 興奮して
02:34
and working activity very long hours,
長い時間活動し
02:37
very active.
とても活発です
02:39
So, what would our natural rhythm look like?
では 自然なリズムでの
02:42
What would our sleeping patterns be
私たちの理想的な睡眠パターンとは
02:44
in the sort of ideal sense?
どのようなものでしょうか?
02:47
Well, it turns out
分かったことは
02:50
that when people are living
全く人工的な照明が無い
02:52
without any sort of artificial light at all,
環境で生活すると
02:54
they sleep twice every night.
人々は毎夜 二度眠ります
02:56
They go to bed around 8:00 p.m.
彼らは午後8時頃に就寝し
02:58
until midnight
午前零時まで眠ります
03:00
and then again, they sleep
そしてまた 午前2時頃から
03:02
from about 2:00 a.m. until sunrise.
日の出まで眠ります
03:04
And in-between, they have a couple of hours
その間には ベッドの上で二、三時間程の
03:07
of sort of meditative quiet in bed.
瞑想的な静寂の時間があります
03:09
And during this time,
この静寂の時には
03:12
there's a surge of prolactin,
現代ではまったく起きない
03:14
the likes of which a modern day never sees.
プロラクチンの高まりが見られます
03:16
The people in these studies
これらの研究に参加した人達は
03:19
report feeling so awake during the daytime,
日中は非常に目が冴えていたので
03:21
that they realize
彼らの人生で初めて
03:23
they're experiencing true wakefulness
本物の覚醒を体験していると
03:25
for the first time in their lives.
気付いたのでした
03:27
So, cut to the modern day.
現代においては
03:29
We're living in a culture of jet lag,
私たちは時差ボケや
03:31
global travel,
長距離旅行
03:33
24-hour business,
24時間止まらないビジネス
03:35
shift work.
シフト勤務の世界に生きています
03:38
And you know, our modern ways
このような現代の
03:41
of doing things
やり方は
03:43
have their advantages,
利点もありますが
03:45
but I believe we should understand the costs.
マイナス面も理解すべきと私は思います
03:47
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
03:50
(Applause)
(拍手)
03:52
Translated by Masahiro Kisono
Reviewed by SHIGERU MASUKAWA

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About the speaker:

Jessa Gamble - Writer
Jessa Gamble writes about sleep and time, showing how our internal body clock struggles against our always-on global culture.

Why you should listen

Jessa Gamble is an award-winning writer from Oxford, who lives in the Canadian Subarctic. Now that humanity has spread right to the Earth's poles and adopted a 24-hour business day, Gamble argues that our internal clocks struggle against our urban schedules. Her work documents the rituals surrounding daily rhythms, which along with local languages and beliefs are losing their rich global diversity and succumbing to a kind of circadian imperialism.

A dynamic new voice in popular science, Gamble was awarded a 2007 Science in Society journalism award from the Canadian Science Writers Association for her first-person account of daily life at the Eureka High Arctic Weather Station. She is the author of Siesta and The Midnight Sun: How We Measure and Experience Time.

More profile about the speaker
Jessa Gamble | Speaker | TED.com