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TEDYouth 2014

Fredy Peccerelli: A forensic anthropologist who brings closure for the "disappeared"

フレディ・ペセレリ: 「消えた人」を法人類学で取り戻す

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36年に渡るグアテマラの内戦では、20万人もの民間人が殺され、4万人以上が未だに見つかっていません。法人類学者の先駆けであるフレディ・ペセレリとチームはDNAと考古学と証言を用いて、愛する人の遺体を家族の元に取り戻す手助けをしています。現実を思い知らされる作業ですが、これによって心の平安と、時には正義がもたらされているのです。

- Forensic anthropologist
Fredy Peccerelli works with families whose loved ones “disappeared” in the 36-year armed conflict in Guatemala. The executive director of the Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation, he helps locate bodies and give back identities to those buried in mass graves. Full bio

Guatemala is recovering from
a 36-year armed conflict.
グアテマラは36年間の
武力衝突から回復中です
00:12
A conflict that was fought
during the Cold War.
この紛争は冷戦時代に起こりました
00:16
It was really just
a small leftist insurgency
元々は小さな左派が起こした
反乱にすぎませんでしたが
00:18
and a devastating response by the state.
政府による反撃は凄惨なものでした
00:22
What we have as a result
is 200,000 civilian victims,
その結果 民間人の被害者は20万に及び
00:25
160,000 of those
killed in the communities:
その内の16万人は自分が暮らしていた
地元で殺されました
00:28
small children, men, women,
the elderly even.
小さな子供に男性 女性
お年寄りに至るまでです
00:32
And then we have
about 40,000 others, the missing,
さらに行方が分からない人々が
4万人もおり
00:36
the ones we're still looking for today.
今なお見つかっていません
00:39
We call them the Desaparecidos.
“Desaparecidos”
「消えた人達」と呼ばれています
00:42
Now, 83 percent of the victims
are Mayan victims,
さて 犠牲者の83パーセントはマヤ人で
00:44
victims that are the descendants
つまり犠牲者は中央アメリカの原住民の
00:47
of the original inhabitants of
Central America.
子孫だったということです
00:50
And only about 17 percent are of
European descent.
そして ヨーロッパ系の人は
17パーセントほどでした
00:52
But the most important thing here is that
しかし ここで最も重要なことは
00:56
the very people who are supposed to
defend us, the police, the military,
この罪を犯したほとんどの者は
本来は私たちを守るべき
00:58
are the ones that committed
most of the crimes.
警察や軍隊だったということです
01:04
Now the families,
they want information.
家族は情報を求めました
01:08
They want to know what happened.
何が起きたのかを知りたいのです
01:11
They want the bodies of their loved ones.
愛する家族の遺体を取り返したいのです
01:12
But most of all,
what they want is they want you,
しかし 家族が何より知ってほしいことは
01:15
they want everyone to know
that their loved ones did nothing wrong.
犠牲者には何の非もなかったことです
01:18
Now, my case was that my father
received death threats in 1980.
さて 私の場合ですが
父が1980年に殺害の脅迫を受けました
01:23
And we left.
それで家族は亡命したのです
01:29
We left Guatemala and we came here.
グアテマラを離れて
ここへ来ました
01:30
So I grew up in New York,
私はニューヨークの
01:32
I grew up in Brooklyn as a matter of fact,
and I went to New Utrecht High School
ブルックリンで育ち
ニュー・ユトレヒト高校へ通い
01:33
and I graduated from Brooklyn College.
ブルックリンカレッジを卒業しました
01:37
The only thing was that
私はグアテマラで
01:39
I really didn't know what
was happening in Guatemala.
何が起きているのか
本当に知りませんでした
01:40
I didn't care for it; it was too painful.
考えないようにしていたのです
あまりにも辛すぎました
01:44
But it wasn't till 1995 that I decided
to do something about it.
でも 1995年に行動することを
決意したのです
01:47
So I went back.
私は戻りました
01:51
I went back to Guatemala,
to look for the bodies,
グアテマラに戻って遺体を探すことで
01:52
to understand what happened
and to look for part of myself as well.
そこで起きたことを理解し
自身の一部を見つけようと思ったのです
01:56
The way we work is that
we give people information.
私たちはまず
人々に情報を提供しました
02:02
We talk to the family members
and we let them choose.
それから親族と話して
自分たちで選んでもらいました
02:05
We let them decide to tell
us the stories,
彼らの意思に委ねたのは
私たちに話をしてくれるか
02:08
to tell us what they saw,
目撃したことを教えてくれるか
02:11
to tell us about their loved ones.
家族のことを話してくれるかです
02:13
And even more important,
また さらに重要だったのは
02:15
we let them choose to
give us a piece of themselves.
自分の一部を提供してくれるか
どうかでした
02:16
A piece, an essence, of who they are.
自分が誰であるのかを示す一片です
02:20
And that DNA is what we're
going to compare
そうやって得たDNAを
02:23
to the DNA that comes
from the skeletons.
遺骨のDNAと比較するのです
02:25
While we're doing that, though,
we're looking for the bodies.
それと並行して
遺体を探し続けました
02:28
And these are skeletons by now,
この犯罪は約32年前に起きており
02:31
most of these crimes
happened 32 years ago.
遺体はもう骨になっています
02:33
When we find the grave,
墓場を見つけると
02:36
we take out the dirt and eventually clean
the body, document it, and exhume it.
土を取り除いて 遺体を綺麗にし
記録して掘り起こします
02:37
We literally bring the
skeleton out of the ground.
文字通り 骸骨を地面から
掘り出すのです
02:41
Once we have those bodies, though,
we take them back to the city, to our lab,
その後 市内の研究所へ運び込み
02:45
and we begin a process of trying
to understand mainly two things:
主に2つの点を分析します
02:49
One is how people died.
まず その人が死亡した原因です
02:52
So here you see a gunshot
wound to the back of the head
例えば このように
後頭部を銃撃された傷や
02:54
or a machete wound, for example.
なたによる傷があります
02:57
The other thing we want to understand
is who they are.
もう一つは どんな人だったかです
03:00
Whether it's a baby,
それが赤ちゃんなのか
03:03
or an adult.
大人なのか
03:07
Whether it's a woman or a man.
女性か男性かを確認します
03:08
But when we're done
with that analysis
その分析が終わると
03:10
what we'll do is we'll take a small
fragment of the bone
骨の一部を使って
03:12
and we'll extract DNA from it.
DNAを抽出します
03:15
We'll take that DNA
そのDNAを使って
03:18
and then we'll compare it with the
DNA of the families, of course.
遺族のDNAと比較するわけです
03:19
The best way to explain this to you
is by showing you two cases.
2つの実例で
説明したいと思います
03:24
The first is the case
of the military diary.
まずは軍事記録の例です
03:27
Now this is a document that was smuggled
out of somewhere in 1999.
これは1999年に密かに
持ち出された記録です
03:30
And what you see there
is the state following individuals,
この記録から分かることは
自分の国の変革を望んだ
03:34
people that, like you,
wanted to change their country,
皆さんと同じ普通の人々を
政府が追跡し
03:39
and they jotted everything down.
その行動をひとつひとつ
記録していたことです
03:43
And one of the things that they wrote
down is when they executed them.
記録の1つは
処刑された時期でした
03:46
Inside that yellow rectangle,
you see a code,
この黄色い枠の中に
コードがあります
03:50
it's a secret code: 300.
「300」という秘密の暗号です
03:53
And then you see a date.
そして日付が記されています
03:56
The 300 means "executed" and the date
means when they were executed.
300 は「処刑」を
日付は執行の日を表します
03:57
Now that's going to come
into play in a second.
後で重要になりますので
頭に入れておいてください
04:01
What we did is we conducted
an exhumation in 2003,
2003年に軍事基地の発掘を行った際
04:05
where we exhumed 220 bodies
from 53 graves in a military base.
53か所の墓で220人の遺体を発見しました
04:08
Grave 9, though, matched the family
of Sergio Saul Linares.
9番の墓にあった骨のDNAは
セルジオ・サウル・リナレスの家族と一致しました
04:14
Now Sergio was a professor
at the university.
セルジオは大学の教授でした
04:18
He graduted from Iowa State University
アイオワ州立大学を卒業し
04:21
and went back to Guatemala
to change his country.
国を変えるためにグアテマラに
戻っていたのです
04:23
And he was captured on
February 23, 1984.
彼が捕えられたのは1984年2月23日です
04:26
And if you can see there, he was
executed on March 29, 1984,
そして 記録には1984年3月29日に
処刑されたとあります
04:30
which was incredible.
これでつながりました
04:34
We had the body, we had the family's
information and their DNA,
遺体が見つかり 家族の情報とDNAもあり
04:35
and now we have documents
that told us exactly what happened.
何が起こったのか その記録もあります
04:38
But most important is about
two weeks later,
更に重要なのはその2週間後に
04:42
we go another hit, another match
同じ墓のもう一人のDNAが
一致したことです
04:45
from the same grave to Amancio Villatoro.
今度はアマンシオ・ヴィヤトロでした
04:47
The DNA of that body
also matched the DNA of that family.
彼のDNAも家族のものと一致したのです
04:52
And then we noticed
that he was also in the diary.
そして軍事記録にも
彼の名があることが判明しました
04:55
But it was amazing to see that he was
also executed on March 29, 1984.
なんと 彼が処刑されたのも
1984年3月29日でした
04:58
So that led us to think, hmm,
how many bodies were in the grave?
そこで私たちは考えました
その墓には何人埋まっていたのか?
05:03
Six.
6人です
05:08
So then we said, how many people
were executed on March 29, 1984?
では 1984年3月29日に
処刑された人数は?
05:09
That's right, six as well.
そう やはり6人でした
05:18
So we have Juan de Dios, Hugo,
Moises and Zoilo.
ファン・デ・ディオスとウーゴ
モイセスとソイロ
05:21
All of them executed on the same date,
all captured at different locations
全員 同じ日に処刑され
全員 場所も月日も
05:26
and at different moments.
ばらばらに捕えられ
05:30
All put in that grave.
全員 そこに埋められました
05:32
The only thing we needed now
was the DNA of those four families
次に必要になったのは
4人の遺族のDNAでした
05:33
So we went and we looked for them
and we found them.
私たちは遺族を探し
見つけることができました
05:36
And we identified those six bodies
and gave them back to the families.
これで6人の身元が判明し
家族の元へ帰すことができたのです
05:39
The other case I want to tell you about
もう一つ皆さんに紹介したいのが
05:44
is that of a military base
called CREOMPAZ.
CREOMPAZという軍事基地です
05:46
It actually means, "to believe in peace,"
but the acronym really means
これはスペイン語で
「平和を信じる」という意味ですが
05:50
Regional Command Center
for Peacekeeping Operations.
平和維持活動
地域訓練本部の略称です
05:55
And this is where the Guatemalan military
trains peacekeepers from other countries,
ここでグアテマラ軍が
他国の平和維持部隊を訓練します
05:58
the ones that serve with the U.N.
この部隊は国連に所属し
06:03
and go to countries
like Haiti and the Congo.
ハイチやコンゴといった国に向かいます
06:06
Well, we have testimony that said that
within this military base,
証言によると この軍事基地には
06:09
there were bodies, there were graves.
複数の遺体や墓地があったというのです
06:12
So we went in there with a search warrant
and about two hours after we went in,
そこで私たちは捜索令状を持って行き
約2時間後に
06:14
we found the first of 84 graves,
a total of 533 bodies.
84か所に上る墓地の1つを見つけ
最終的に533人もの遺体を見つけました
06:18
Now, if you think about that,
考えてみてください
06:24
peacekeepers being trained
on top of bodies.
平和維持部隊は 遺体の山の上で
訓練を受けていたわけです
06:26
It's very ironic.
何という皮肉でしょうか
06:30
But the bodies -- face down, most of them,
hands tied behind their backs,
遺体は ほとんどが
うつぶせで後ろ手に縛られ
06:33
blindfolded, all types of trauma --
目隠しをされ 様々な外傷がありました
06:38
these were people who were defenseless
who were being executed.
なす術もなく処刑された人々です
06:41
People that 533 families are looking for.
533の家族が この人々を
捜しているのです
06:44
So we're going to focus on Grave 15.
その内の15番目の墓に注目したいと思います
06:48
Grave 15, what we noticed,
was a grave full of women and children,
15番の墓には女性と子供が埋められていました
06:51
63 of them.
全部で63人です
06:54
And that immediately made us think,
真っ先に私たちは
06:57
my goodness, where is there
a case like this?
どこでこのような事件が
起こったのだろうと考えました
07:00
When I got to Guatemala in 1995,
1995年に私がグアテマラへ戻ったとき
07:02
I heard of a case of a massacre
that happened on May 14, 1982,
1982年5月14日に起こった
虐殺事件の話を聞きました
07:05
where the army came in, killed the men,
軍隊がやって来て 男性を殺害した後
07:09
and took the women and children
in helicopters to an unknown location.
女性や子供をヘリコプターで
どこかへ連れ去ったというのです
07:13
Well, guess what?
分かりましたね
07:18
The clothing from this grave matched the
clothing from the region
この墓の中の人々の服装は
07:18
where these people were taken from,
連れ去れた女性や子供が住んでいた
07:23
where these women and children
were taken from.
地域の服装と合致したのです
07:24
So we conducted some DNA analysis,
and guess what?
そこでDNA鑑定を行ったところ
07:27
We identified Martina Rojas
and Manuel Chen.
マルティナ・ロハスと
マニュエル・チェンだと分りました
07:30
Both of them disappeared in that case,
and now we could prove it.
2人ともこの事件で行方不明でしたが
これで証拠がそろいました
07:33
We have physical evidence that
proves that this happened
この事件が実際に起こり
この軍事基地へ連れてこられたという
07:36
and that those people
were taken to this base.
物的証拠を得ることができたのです
07:39
Now, Manuel Chen was three years old.
マニュエル・チェンはたったの3歳でした
07:41
His mother went to the river to wash
clothes, and she left him with a neighbor.
この子の母親は隣人に息子を預けて
川へ洗濯に行っていたのです
07:45
That's when the army came
その時に軍隊がやってきて
07:49
and that's when he was taken away in
a helicopter and never seen again
ヘリで連れ去られたので
15番の墓の中で見つけるまで
07:51
until we found him in Grave 15.
行方不明になっていました
07:55
So now with science, with archaeology,
with anthropology, with genetics,
科学と考古学
人類学と遺伝子学を利用することで
07:57
what we're doing is, we're
giving a voice to the voiceless.
声なき人々が語ることができます
08:02
But we're doing more than that.
しかし それだけではなく
08:05
We're actually providing
evidence for trials,
裁判で利用できる証拠も提供しています
08:07
like the genocide trial that happened
last year in Guatemala
例えば 去年グアテマラで行われた
大虐殺の裁判で
08:09
where General Ríos Montt was found guilty
of genocide and sentenced to 80 years.
リオス・モント将軍は集団虐殺罪で
懲役80年の判決を言い渡されました
08:13
So I came here to tell you today
that this is happening everywhere --
今日 皆さんに伝えたいのは
同じことが至る所で起きていることです
08:18
it's happening in Mexico
right in front of us today --
メキシコでも目の前で
同じことが起きています
08:21
and we can't let it go on anymore.
見て見ぬふりはできません
08:24
We have to now come together and decide
私たちは これ以上
行方不明者を出さないと
08:26
that we're not going to have
any more missing.
皆で決意しなければなりません
08:29
So no more missing, guys.
行方不明者を
08:31
Okay? No more missing.
二度と出してはなりません
08:32
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
08:35
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:36
Translated by Misaki Sato
Reviewed by Kazunori Akashi

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About the speaker:

Fredy Peccerelli - Forensic anthropologist
Fredy Peccerelli works with families whose loved ones “disappeared” in the 36-year armed conflict in Guatemala. The executive director of the Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation, he helps locate bodies and give back identities to those buried in mass graves.

Why you should listen

In Guatemala’s brutal civil war, 200,000 civilians were killed — and more than 40,000 of them were never found. They are referred to as the “disappeared,” and since the end of the conflict, their bodies have been found in unmarked mass graves with very little information to identify them. 

Fredy Peccerelli has a personal connection to this tragic story. He was born in Guatemala, but when his father received threats from a death squad, his family left for the United States. It was 1980 and Peccerelli was 9. He quickly adapted to life in Brooklyn, New York. But in 1994, while a college student, he heard a presentation on the emerging field of forensic anthropology. The speakers talked about exhuming bodies from mass graves in Guatemala, and Peccerelli was fascinated. He wanted to help.

Peccerelli founded the Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation, which meets with the families of the “disappeared,” listens to their stories and takes DNA samples to match to exhumed bodies. In this way, they are able to piece together narratives of what happened — in order to give families closure and to provide evidence for the trials of those involved in the deaths. 

Pecerrelli has been profiled on PBS, in The New York Times and more. He recently launched the “No More Missing” campaign to raise money for an interactive website to tell the stories of the Guatemalan "disappeared" on the global stage. He wants people across the world to see the connection between what happened Guatemala and what is happening today in countries like Mexico. 

More profile about the speaker
Fredy Peccerelli | Speaker | TED.com