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TED2006

Amy Smith: Simple designs to save a life

艾美•史密斯 — 拯救百萬兒童的簡單設計

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屋內烹飪用火的煙,每年奪走兩百萬名發展中國家兒童的生命。麻省理工學院教授艾美•史密斯詳細說明一個簡單但令人振奮的解決辦法 — 將農業廢料轉化成乾淨的燃燒木炭。

- inventor, engineer
Amy Smith designs cheap, practical fixes for tough problems in developing countries. Among her many accomplishments, the MIT engineer received a MacArthur "genius" grant in 2004 and was the first woman to win the Lemelson-MIT Prize for turning her ideas into inventions. Full bio

就發明而言,
00:25
In terms of invention,
00:26
I'd like to tell you the tale
of one of my favorite projects.
我想跟大家分享一個我最喜歡的計畫。
00:29
I think it's one of the most exciting
that I'm working on,
也是我正在進行計畫中,最令人興奮的一個,
但也是最簡單的一個。
00:32
but I think it's also the simplest.
這計畫有可能對全世界造成巨大影響。
00:34
It's a project that has the potential
to make a huge impact around the world.
這個計畫致力解決地球上最大的健康問題之一,
00:39
It addresses one of the biggest
health issues on the planet,
那就是五歲以下兒童的第一大死因,
00:42
the number one cause of death
in children under five.
那又是什麼呢?是藉由水傳染的疾病、腹瀉或營養不良嗎?
00:46
Which is ...?
00:48
Water-borne diseases?
Diarrhea? Malnutrition?
都不是,而是吸入屋內烹飪用火的煙
00:52
No.
00:53
It's breathing the smoke
from indoor cooking fires --
所引起的急性呼吸道感染疾病。你能相信嗎?
00:57
acute respiratory infections
caused by this.
01:00
Can you believe that?
我覺得震驚而且有點可怕。
01:02
I find this shocking
and somewhat appalling.
我們難道不能製造低污染的烹飪燃料嗎?
01:05
Can't we make
cleaner burning cooking fuels?
我們難道不能製造更好的烤爐嗎?
01:08
Can't we make better stoves?
這種原因怎麼可能造成每年 200 萬人以上的死亡呢?
01:10
How is it that this can lead
to over two million deaths every year?
我知道比爾•喬伊剛剛跟大家談過
01:14
I know Bill Joy was talking to you
about the wonders of carbon nanotubes,
奈米碳管的好處。
所以現在我想跟大家談談
01:18
so I'm going to talk to you
about the wonders of carbon macro-tubes,
巨碳管,也就是木炭。
01:22
which is charcoal.
01:24
(Laughter)
這是海地農村的照片。98% 的樹林已遭砍伐。
01:26
So this is a picture of rural Haiti.
01:28
Haiti is now 98 percent deforested.
這樣的景象在海地隨處可見。
01:31
You'll see scenes like this
all over the island.
這造就了各種環境問題,
01:34
It leads to all sorts
of environmental problems
影響整個國家人民的問題。
01:37
and problems that affect people
throughout the nation.
01:41
A couple years ago
there was severe flooding
幾年前有場很嚴重的水災,
造成上千人的死亡,
01:43
that led to thousands of deaths --
原因要歸咎於
01:45
that's directly attributable to the fact
山坡上沒有樹木可以固定土壤。
01:47
that there are no trees on the hills
to stabilize the soil.
當下雨時,土壤流進了河流,因而造成了水災。
01:50
So the rains come --
01:51
they go down the rivers
and the flooding happens.
樹木變稀少的原因之一是:
01:55
Now one of the reasons
why there are so few trees is this:
人們需要煮飯,所以就砍樹並
01:58
people need to cook,
02:00
and they harvest wood
and they make charcoal in order to do it.
製造木炭來烹飪。
並不是人們不知道這樣會破壞大自然。
02:04
It's not that people are ignorant
to the environmental damage.
他們非常清楚,卻沒有其他選擇。
02:07
They know perfectly well,
but they have no other choice.
石化燃料不易取得,
02:09
Fossil fuels are not available,
用太陽能烹煮的食物風味不符合他們的口味。
02:11
and solar energy doesn't cook the way
that they like their food prepared.
02:16
And so this is what they do.
所以他們只好如此。
你會看到像這樣的家庭到森林裡去找一棵樹,
02:18
You'll find families like this who go out
into the forest to find a tree,
砍倒樹後,做成木炭來用。
02:23
cut it down and make charcoal out of it.
並不意外地,有人做了許多努力,
02:27
So not surprisingly,
02:28
there's a lot of effort that's been done
to look at alternative cooking fuels.
探討替代的烹飪燃料。
大約四年前,我帶了一群學生去海地,
02:34
About four years ago, I took
a team of students down to Haiti
與和平團的志工一起工作。
02:37
and we worked with
Peace Corps volunteers there.
02:39
This is one such volunteer
這是其中一位志工,
02:41
and this is a device that he had built
in the village where he worked.
這是他在他所服務的村子裡建造的機器。
02:44
And the idea was
that you could take waste paper;
概念來自於你可以將廢紙
壓扁成為燃料用的紙餅。
02:47
you could compress it
02:48
and make briquettes
that could be used for fuel.
可是這個機器運作速度很緩慢。
02:51
But this device was very slow.
所以我們工程系的學生過去幫忙,
02:53
So our engineering students
went to work on it
透過一些非常簡單的改進,
02:56
and with some very simple changes,
02:58
they were able to triple
the throughput of this device.
就將機器的生產率提高了三倍。
03:01
So you could imagine
they were very excited about it.
你可以想像他們有多麼興奮。
學生們把紙餅帶回麻省理工學院測試。
03:04
And they took the briquettes back to MIT
so that they could test them.
其中一個發現是,紙餅並不會燃燒。
03:08
And one of the things
that they found was they didn't burn.
這讓學生們感到有點洩氣。
03:13
So it was a little
discouraging to the students.
03:15
(Laughter)
實際上,如果你仔細看,就在這兒,
03:17
And in fact, if you look closely,
03:19
right here you can see
it says, "US Peace Corps."
你可以看見上面寫著:「美國和平團」
後來發現,那村子根本沒有任何廢紙。
03:23
As it turns out, there actually wasn't
any waste paper in this village.
這志工雖然充分利用了政府文件
03:27
And while it was a good use
of government paperwork
03:30
for this volunteer to bring it
back with him to his village,
做成了紙餅帶回他的村子,
八百公里之外的村子。
03:33
it was 800 kilometers away.
所以我們認為,也許還有更好的辦法
03:35
And so we thought perhaps
there might be a better way
03:38
to come up with
an alternative cooking fuel.
來製造替代的烹飪燃料。
我們想要做的是,製造一種燃料,
03:41
What we wanted to do
is we wanted to make a fuel
03:43
that used something that was
readily available on the local level.
使用在地現有並容易取得的材料。
你在海地也到處看得到這種小型的製糖廠。
03:47
You see these all over Haiti as well.
03:48
They're small-scale sugar mills.
03:50
And the waste product from them
榨取甘蔗汁之後的廢料
稱為甘蔗渣。
03:52
after you extract the juice
from the sugarcane
03:54
is called "bagasse."
甘蔗渣沒有其他用途。沒有營養,
03:56
It has no other use.
03:57
It has no nutritional value,
so they don't feed it to the animals.
所以不能用來餵養動物。
04:00
It just sits in a pile near the sugar mill
until eventually they burn it.
甘蔗渣就被堆積在製糖廠旁,等著最後被燒掉。
我們想做的是,找出一種方法
04:05
What we wanted to do was
we wanted to find a way
利用這些廢料資源做成燃料
04:08
to harness this waste resource
and turn it into a fuel
讓人能輕鬆用之來烹飪,
04:11
that would be something
that people could easily cook with,
一種類似木炭的東西。
04:14
something like charcoal.
接下來數年間,我跟學生們研發這種燃料的製程。
04:16
So over the next couple of years,
04:18
students and I worked
to develop a process.
首先你將甘蔗渣放進一個非常簡單的窯,
04:21
So you start with the bagasse,
and then you take a very simple kiln
一個可以用 55 加崙廢汽油桶做成的窯。
04:25
that you can make out of
a waste fifty five-gallon oil drum.
燃燒一段時間後,密封起來
04:28
After some time, after setting it on fire,
04:31
you seal it to restrict the oxygen
that goes into the kiln,
防止氧氣進入窯裡面,
最後會得到這個碳化的材料。
04:35
and then you end up
with this carbonized material here.
但是你不能燃燒這個。因為太細
04:38
However, you can't burn this.
04:40
It's too fine and it burns too quickly
to be useful for cooking.
且燒得太快,無法用來烹飪。
所以我們必須想辦法把它
04:45
So we had to try to find a way
to form it into useful briquettes.
變成有用的餅塊,剛好有個學生來自迦納,
04:49
And conveniently,
one of my students was from Ghana,
他記得他母親曾做過的「可康堤」,
04:52
and he remembered a dish his mom
used to make for him called "kokonte,"
04:56
which is a very sticky porridge
made out of the cassava root.
那是一種用樹薯做的黏稠的粥。
04:59
And so what we did was we looked,
於是我們調查後發現
05:01
and we found that cassava
is indeed grown in Haiti,
海地確實有種植樹薯,只是被叫做木薯。
05:04
under the name of "manioc."
其實世界各地都有種植 —
05:06
In fact, it's grown all over the world --
絲蘭西米、木薯、樹薯,全都一樣,
05:08
yucca, tapioca, manioc, cassava,
it's all the same thing --
05:11
a very starchy root vegetable.
是一種含高澱粉的根菜。
可用其做成很黏稠的漿糊,
05:13
And you can make a very thick,
sticky porridge out of it,
來把炭餅黏在一起。
05:17
which you can use to bind together
the charcoal briquettes.
於是我們就這麼到海地去如法炮製。
05:21
So we did this. We went down to Haiti.
這是「木炭大學」第一屆的畢業生,
05:24
These are the graduates
of the first Ecole de Charbon,
又或你稱它為「木炭研究所」
05:27
or Charcoal Institute.
(笑聲)
05:28
And these --
05:30
(Laughter)
沒錯。我其實不但是麻省理工學院,同時也是木炭大學的老師。
05:31
That's right. So I'm actually
an instructor at MIT as well as CIT.
這些就是我們製造的炭餅。
05:37
And these are the briquettes that we made.
現在我將帶各位看看另一塊大陸。這裡是印度,
05:40
Now I'm going to take you
to a different continent.
05:44
This is India
這是印度最普遍的烹飪燃料:牛糞。
05:45
and this is the most commonly used
cooking fuel in India.
05:48
It's cow dung.
比海地更嚴重的是,牛糞製造更多的煙,
05:50
And more than in Haiti,
this produces really smoky fires,
你可以看到燃燒牛糞和生物質對健康所造成的影響。
05:54
and this is where you see
the health impacts
05:56
of cooking with cow dung
and biomass as a fuel.
你可以看到燃燒牛糞和生物質對健康所造成的影響。
小孩子和婦女尤深受其害,
06:01
Kids and women
are especially affected by it,
06:03
because they're the ones
who are around the cooking fires.
因為他們常待在火爐旁邊。
於是我們想要知道是否可以將
06:06
So we wanted to see
06:08
if we could introduce
this charcoal-making technology there.
炭餅製作的技術引進到印度。
可惜的是,印度沒有甘蔗渣
06:11
Well, unfortunately,
they didn't have sugarcane
及樹薯,但那無法阻擋我們。
06:14
and they didn't have cassava,
06:15
but that didn't stop us.
我們找出當地可用的生物質資源。
06:17
What we did was we found what were
the locally available sources of biomass.
那地方有麥稈和稻草。
06:21
And there was wheat straw
and there was rice straw in this area.
至於黏著劑
06:24
And what we could use as a binder
was actually small amounts of cow manure,
則是少量的牛糞肥,
也是他們常用在燃料上的東西。
06:28
which they used ordinarily for their fuel.
我們進行了並排測試,你能看見這裡是
06:31
And we did side-by-side tests,
06:33
and here you can see
the charcoal briquettes
炭餅,這則是牛糞。
06:36
and here the cow dung.
你會發現炭餅是更乾淨的燃料。
06:37
And you can see that it's a lot cleaner
burning of a cooking fuel.
實際上,它還能更快地將水煮沸。
06:41
And in fact, it heats the water
a lot more quickly.
06:43
And so we were very happy, thus far.
因此,到目前為止,我們非常開心。
但當我們
06:46
But one of the things that we found
06:47
was when we did side-by-side
comparisons with wood charcoal,
把炭餅和木炭並排比較時,
06:50
it didn't burn as long.
發現炭餅的燃燒時間較短。而且炭餅會有點碎裂,
06:52
And the briquettes crumbled a little bit
烹飪過程中也會因瓦解而喪失能量。
06:54
and we lost energy as they fell apart
as they were cooking.
於是,我們想要找方法製造更強韌的炭餅,
06:57
So we wanted to try to find a way
to make a stronger briquette
07:00
so that we could compete with
wood charcoal in the markets in Haiti.
好讓炭餅能在海地的市場上與木炭競爭。
所以我們回到麻省理工學院,拿出材料測驗機,
07:05
So we went back to MIT,
07:07
we took out the Instron machine
找出了所需要的壓力
07:09
and we figured out
what sort of forces you needed
來壓製真正能
07:12
in order to compress
a briquette to the level
提升效能的炭餅。
07:14
that you actually are getting
improved performance out of it?
在此同時,我們有學生在實驗室裡研究
07:17
And at the same time that we had
students in the lab looking at this,
也有海地的社群夥伴一起開發製程,
07:21
we also had community partners in Haiti
working to develop the process,
不斷改進且讓村民能更容易取用炭餅。
07:28
to improve it and make it more accessible
to people in the villages there.
一些時日之後,
07:33
And after some time,
我們開發出低成本的壓製機來製造
07:35
we developed a low-cost press
that allows you to produce charcoal,
比木炭燃燒更久且更乾淨的炭餅。
07:40
which actually now burns not only --
07:43
actually, it burns longer,
cleaner than wood charcoal.
現在的情況是,我們有個產品
07:47
So now we're in a situation
where we have a product,
07:49
which is actually better than what
you can buy in Haiti in the marketplace,
比你所能在海地市場買到的更好,
這真是個美好的成就。
07:54
which is a very wonderful place to be.
光是海地,每年就有三千萬棵樹遭砍伐。
07:58
In Haiti alone, about 30 million trees
are cut down every year.
08:03
There's a possibility
of this being implemented
炭餅很可能被市場採用,
大量的樹林就得以被保存。
08:06
and saving a good portion of those.
此外,這炭餅所創造的營收是兩億六千萬美金。
08:08
In addition, the revenue generated
from that charcoal is 260 million dollars.
這對海地來說是很龐大的金額,
08:14
That's an awful lot
for a country like Haiti --
一個總人口數 800 萬
08:17
with a population of eight million
每人平均收入低於 400 美元的國家。
08:19
and an average income
of less than 400 dollars.
這也是我們炭餅計畫的目標。
08:23
So this is where we're also moving ahead
with our charcoal project.
08:27
And one of the things
that I think is also interesting,
另外我覺得有趣的是,
我有個朋友在柏克萊大學做風險分析。
08:30
is I have a friend up at UC Berkeley
who's been doing risk analysis.
08:34
And he's looked at the problem
of the health impacts
他觀察燃燒木柴及木炭
08:37
of burning wood versus charcoal.
所造成的健康影響。
08:39
And he's found that worldwide,
you could prevent a million deaths
他發現如果全世界
把烹飪燃料從木柴換成木炭
08:43
switching from wood
to charcoal as a cooking fuel.
就可避免好幾百萬人的死亡。這是很值得注意的。
08:46
That's remarkable,
可是在這之前,除了砍樹外,別無他法。
08:47
but up until now, there weren't ways
to do it without cutting down trees.
但現在我們可以利用
08:51
But now we have a way
08:52
that's using an agricultural
waste material to create a cooking fuel.
農業廢料製造燃料來煮飯。
08:56
One of the really exciting things, though,
其中真的很令人興奮的,
也是上個月我到迦納才發現的。
08:58
is something that came out of the trip
that I took to Ghana just last month.
這是我覺得最酷的事,
09:02
And I think it's the coolest thing,
而且比你剛才看到的技術還要簡單,
09:05
and it's even lower tech
than what you just saw,
如果你能想像得到的話。我們來看一下。
09:08
if you can imagine such a thing.
09:10
Here it is.
這是什麼呢?這是玉米芯做成的木炭。
09:11
So what is this?
09:13
This is corncobs turned into charcoal.
最棒的是,你不需要把它壓成餅狀。
09:15
And the beauty of this is
that you don't need to form briquettes --
原本就已成型了。這正是我的百元電腦。
09:19
it comes ready made.
09:20
This is my $100 laptop, right here.
我其實跟尼克一樣有帶樣品來。
09:23
And actually, like Nick,
I brought samples.
(笑聲)
09:26
(Laughter)
09:28
So we can pass these around.
我們可以傳著看一下。
玉米芯炭完全實用,實地測試過,且即可上市。
09:32
They're fully functional,
field-tested, ready to roll out.
09:36
(Laughter)
我認為,關於這技術的另一個值得注意的事
09:40
And I think one of the things
09:41
which is also remarkable
about this technology,
就是這技術是非常容易轉移的。
09:46
is that the technology
transfer is so easy.
比起甘蔗渣木炭,
09:48
Compared to the sugarcane charcoal,
我們必須教人如何做炭餅,
09:51
where we have to teach people
how to form it into briquettes
而且還多個步驟,必需熬煮黏著劑,
09:53
and you have the extra step
of cooking the binder,
玉米芯炭則完全不用。
09:56
this comes pre-briquetted.
這大致上就是我現在生命中最興奮的事,
09:57
And this is about the most exciting
thing in my life right now,
也許對我的生活來說,是個蠻可悲的註解。
10:00
which is perhaps
a sad commentary on my life.
(笑聲)
10:04
(Laughter)
可是一旦你看過之後,就像現在前排的你們,就會認同
10:06
But once you see it,
like you guys in the front row --
對吧,總之,就是這樣 ...
10:08
All right, yeah, OK.
10:10
So anyway --
(笑聲)
10:11
(Laughter)
我認為這是個完美的例子
10:13
Here it is.
10:14
And this is, I think, a perfect example
說明羅伯•賴特所說的「非零和」。
10:17
of what Robert Wright was talking about
in those non-zero-sum things.
這不只對健康有好處,
10:22
So not only do you have health benefits,
還更環保。
10:24
you have environmental benefits.
而且是極為少見的
10:27
But this is one
of the incredibly rare situations
能夠創造經濟效益的例子。
10:30
where you also have economic benefits.
人們可以用廢料製造自己的烹飪燃料,
10:33
People can make their own cooking fuel
from waste products.
10:36
They can generate income from this.
並從中製造營收。
10:38
They can save the money
that they were going to spend on charcoal
他們可以節省原本需要購買木炭的錢,
10:41
and they can produce excess
and sell it in the market
製造額外的玉米芯炭
拿到市場賣給不自己製造的人。
10:44
to people who aren't making their own.
很少見到
10:46
It's really rare
that you don't have trade-offs
在健康和經濟之間或環境和經濟之間是沒有抵換的。
10:48
between health and economics,
or environment and economics.
10:51
So this is a project
that I just find extremely exciting
因此,這是讓我覺得極度興奮的計畫,
也期待它將引領我們創造的未來。
10:55
and I'm really looking forward
to see where it takes us.
現在,當我們談到將被創造的未來,
11:02
So when we talk about, now,
the future we will create,
其中我認為必須要有的
11:06
one of the things
that I think is necessary
11:08
is to have a very clear vision
of the world that we live in.
就是對我們所生存的世界要有很清楚的遠見。
我並不是指大多數的我們居住的這個世界。
11:12
And now, I don't actually mean
the world that we live in.
11:16
I mean the world where women
spend two to three hours everyday
而是指女人們每天花兩三個小時
輾磨榖粒給家人吃的那個世界。
11:20
grinding grain for their families to eat.
我是指當「先進建材」
11:24
I mean the world
where advanced building materials
指的是手工水泥屋瓦的那個世界,
11:27
means cement roofing tiles
that are made by hand,
以及即使每天工作十小時,
11:30
and where, when you work 10 hours a day,
11:32
you're still only earning
60 dollars in a month.
每個月還是只賺 60 塊美元的那個世界。
在我所說的世界,女人和小孩們每年總共花四百億小時在打水。
11:37
I mean the world
11:38
where women and children spend
40 billion hours a year fetching water.
等於是加州所有的工作人口
11:45
That's as if the entire workforce
of the state of California
一年工作全職專門只是打水。
11:49
worked full time for a year
doing nothing but fetching water.
那是一個這樣的地方,例如,如果這裡是印度,
11:53
It's a place where,
for example, if this were India,
在這演講廳中的我們,只有三人擁有汽車。
11:57
in this room, only three of us
would have a car.
如果這裡是阿富汗,
12:01
If this were Afghanistan,
只有一人懂得如何使用網路。
12:02
only one person in this room
would know how the use the Internet.
如果這裡是尚比亞,你們當中的 300 人會是農夫,
12:06
If this were Zambia --
12:08
300 of you would be farmers,
100 人會有愛滋病。
12:11
100 of you would have AIDS or HIV.
超過一半的人,每天的生活費少於一塊美金。
12:14
And more than half of you would be living
on less than a dollar a day.
這些都是我們必須想出解決辦法的問題。
12:19
These are the issues that we
need to come up with solutions for.
這些是我們必須訓練我們的工程師、
12:23
These are the issues that
we need to be training our engineers,
12:27
our designers, our business people,
our entrepreneurs to be facing.
設計師、商人、企業家去面對的問題。
這些是我們必須找到的解答。
12:32
These are the solutions
that we need to find.
這裡有幾點我認為是特別值得去注意的。
12:34
I have a few areas that I believe
are especially important that we address.
一個是創造技術以提倡微型金融及微型企業,
12:41
One of them is creating technologies
12:43
to promote micro-finance
and micro-enterprise,
讓住在貧窮當中的人可以設法脫離貧困,
12:46
so that people who are living
below the poverty line
12:49
can find a way to move out --
且不是透過
12:50
and that they're not doing it
傳統的編籃工藝、飼養家畜等等。
12:51
using the same traditional
basket making, poultry rearing, etc.
12:55
But there are new technologies
and new products
而是讓他們以小規模
12:57
that they can make on a small scale.
製造新技術和新產品
13:00
The next thing I believe
另一個我相信的是,我們需要爲貧窮的農夫提供技術
13:01
is that we need to create
technologies for poor farmers
使農作物增加價值。
13:06
to add value to their own crops.
也必須重新思考我們的開發策略,
13:09
And we need to rethink
our development strategies,
讓我們不會提倡教育制度
13:12
so that we're not promoting
educational campaigns
13:15
to get them to stop being farmers,
來阻止他們成為農夫,
13:17
but rather to stop being poor farmers.
而是阻止他們成為貧窮的農夫。
13:20
And we need to think
about how we can do that effectively.
我們必須思考如何有效率地達到目的。
我們必須跟當地居民一起合作,
13:24
We need to work with the people
in these communities
提供他們所需的資源和工具
13:27
and give them the resources
and the tools that they need
來解決他們自己的問題。這才是最好的辦法。
13:29
to solve their own problems.
13:31
That's the best way to do it.
我們不應該在外部做事。
13:33
We shouldn't be doing it from outside.
我們必須創造這樣的未來,而且必須就從今天開始做起。
13:35
So we need to create this future,
and we need to start doing it now.
謝謝各位
13:40
Thank you.
13:41
(Applause)
(掌聲)
13:46
Chris Anderson: Thank you, incredible.
13:49
Stay here.
克里斯•安德森:在別人提問之前先告訴我們
13:51
Tell us -- just while we see
if someone has a question --
另一個你做過的計畫。
13:54
just tell us about one of the other things
that you've worked on.
艾美•史密斯:其它我們正在努力的有,
13:57
Amy Smith: Some of the other
things we're working on
找出低成本可測試水品質的辦法,
14:00
are ways to do low-cost
water quality testing,
讓居民能維持他們自己的水系統,
14:02
so that communities can maintain
their own water systems,
知道何時系統良好、知道何時該處理水等等。
14:05
know when they're working,
know when they treat them, etc.
14:07
We're also looking at low-cost
water-treatment systems.
另外也在設法建造低成本的廢水處理系統。
其中相當令人興奮的就是太陽能消毒裝置,
14:10
One of the really exciting things
is looking at solar water disinfection
以及改進裝置的功能性。
14:13
and improving the ability
to be able to do that.
克里斯:是什麼瓶頸阻礙了這些東西的推行呢?
14:17
CA: What's the bottleneck
preventing this stuff getting from scale?
你需要找企業家或是創投家嗎,
14:21
Do you need to find entrepreneurs,
or venture capitalists,
你需要什麼來推行你手上的技術呢?
14:24
or what do you need to take
what you've got and get it to scale?
艾美:我想是有大量的人來推動這些計畫。
14:29
AS: I think it's large numbers
of people moving it forward.
困難的是市場非常零碎,
14:32
It's a difficult thing --
14:33
it's a marketplace
which is very fragmented
消費人口也沒有收入。
14:35
and a consumer population with no income.
所以你無法用美國的模式
14:37
So you can't use the same models
that you use in the United States
來讓事情有進展。
14:40
for making things move forward.
14:42
And we're a pretty small staff,
而且我們的員工很少,就只有我而已。
14:44
which is me.
14:45
(Laughter)
(笑聲)
所以我盡力與學生一起努力。
14:47
So, you know,
I do what I can with the students.
每年有 30 位學生到現場去
14:49
We have 30 students a year
go out into the field
嘗試執行和推動這理念。
14:52
and try to implement this
and move it forward.
另外就是你必須長期進行,
14:54
The other thing is you have to do things
with a long time frame,
你不能期待一兩年就把事情做完。
14:58
as, you know, you can't expect to get
something done in a year or two years;
你必須投入五或十年的時間。
15:02
you have to be looking
five or 10 years ahead.
不過只要有這個願景,我們就能向前邁進。
15:04
But I think with the vision to do that,
we can move forward.
Translated by Dxm Online大小媒體
Reviewed by Bill Hsiung

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About the speaker:

Amy Smith - inventor, engineer
Amy Smith designs cheap, practical fixes for tough problems in developing countries. Among her many accomplishments, the MIT engineer received a MacArthur "genius" grant in 2004 and was the first woman to win the Lemelson-MIT Prize for turning her ideas into inventions.

Why you should listen

Mechanical engineer Amy Smith's approach to problem-solving in developing nations is refreshingly common-sense: Invent cheap, low-tech devices that use local resources, so communities can reproduce her efforts and ultimately help themselves. Smith, working with her students at MIT's D-Lab, has come up with several useful tools, including an incubator that stays warm without electricity, a simple grain mill, and a tool that converts farm waste into cleaner-burning charcoal.

The inventions have earned Smith three prestigious prizes: the B.F. Goodrich Collegiate Inventors Award, the MIT-Lemelson Prize, and a MacArthur "genius" grant. Her course, "Design for Developing Countries," is a pioneer in bringing humanitarian design into the curriculum of major institutions. Going forward, the former Peace Corps volunteer strives to do much more, bringing her inventiveness and boundless energy to bear on some of the world's most persistent problems.

More profile about the speaker
Amy Smith | Speaker | TED.com