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TEDYouth 2015

Jill Heinerth: The mysterious world of underwater caves

ジル・ハイネス: 水中洞窟の神秘の世界

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洞窟潜水士のジル・ハイネスは地球に流れる隠された地下水路を探検します。生物学者、気候学者、考古学者と協力して、ハイネスは地球の最も遠隔地に住む生物の謎を明らかにし、研究者が気候変動の歴史を解き明かすのを助けます。このトークで波の下に飛び込み、地球内部の驚異を探検しましょう。

- Cave diver
Jill Heinerth explores underwater caves deep inside the earth. Full bio

I'm an underwater explorer,
私は水中探検家です
00:13
more specifically a cave diver.
具体的には洞窟潜水士です
00:17
I wanted to be an astronaut
when I was a little kid,
子どもの頃は宇宙飛行士に
なりたかったのですが
00:21
but growing up in Canada as a young girl,
that wasn't really available to me.
カナダの女の子にとっては
実際には不可能でした
00:23
But as it turns out,
we know a lot more about space
でも宇宙については
00:29
than we do about the underground waterways
coursing through our planet,
母なる地球の生命線である
地下水路についてよりも
00:33
the very lifeblood of Mother Earth.
ずっとよく知られていると分かりました
00:37
So I decided to do something
that was even more remarkable.
だから もっと驚くべきことを
することにしました
00:41
Instead of exploring outer space,
宇宙の代わりに
00:45
I wanted to explore
the wonders of inner space.
地球内部の驚異を
探検したかったのです
00:47
Now, a lot of people will tell you
多くの人が
00:51
that cave diving is perhaps
one of the most dangerous endeavors.
洞窟潜水は恐らく最も危険な
活動の一つだといいます
00:53
I mean, imagine yourself
here in this room,
想像してみてください
この部屋にいるあなたが
00:58
if you were suddenly
plunged into blackness,
突然暗闇に押し込められて
01:01
with your only job to find the exit,
ひたすら出口を探すのを任務とし
01:04
sometimes swimming
through these large spaces,
時には広い空間を泳ぎ
01:06
and at other times
crawling beneath the seats,
時には椅子の下を
這うようにして
01:09
following a thin guideline,
細いガイドラインをたどって
01:12
just waiting for the life support
to provide your very next breath.
生命維持装置が次の息を
供給するのを待つのです
01:15
Well, that's my workplace.
それが私の仕事場です
01:19
But what I want to teach you today
今日お教えしたいのは
01:22
is that our world
is not one big solid rock.
地球は一つの大きな
硬い岩ではないということです
01:24
It's a whole lot more like a sponge.
むしろスポンジのようなものです
01:29
I can swim through a lot of the pores
in our earth's sponge,
私は地球のスポンジにある
たくさんの穴の中を泳げますが
01:31
but where I can't,
行かれない場所でも
01:35
other life-forms and other materials
can make that journey without me.
他の生命体と物質が
私なしで旅しています
01:37
And my voice is the one
that's going to teach you
私は母なる地球の内部について
01:42
about the inside of Mother Earth.
皆さんにお教えするつもりです
01:45
There was no guidebook available to me
人類初の南極の氷山内部への
01:50
when I decided to be the first person
to cave dive inside Antarctic icebergs.
潜水を決心した時
ガイドブックはありませんでした
01:53
In 2000, this was the largest
moving object on the planet.
2000年において
これは地球最大の移動物体でした
01:59
It calved off the Ross Ice Shelf,
ロス氷棚が分離したものです
02:04
and we went down there
to explore ice edge ecology
氷縁の生態系を調査し
02:06
and search for life-forms beneath the ice.
氷の下の生命体を
探すために潜りました
02:09
We use a technology called rebreathers.
私たちはリブリーザー
と呼ばれる技術を使います
02:12
It's an awful lot like the same technology
that is used for space walks.
宇宙遊泳に使われる技術と
非常に似ています
02:15
This technology enables us to go deeper
この技術で
10年前に想像したよりも
02:19
than we could've imagined
even 10 years ago.
深く潜れるようになりました
02:22
We use exotic gases,
私たちは特殊なガスを使い
02:25
and we can make missions
even up to 20 hours long underwater.
水中で20時間もの任務でさえ可能です
02:27
I work with biologists.
私は生物学者たちと
一緒に働いています
02:33
It turns out that caves
are repositories of amazing life-forms,
洞窟は驚くべき生物や
02:35
species that we never knew existed before.
以前は存在を知らなかった
種の宝庫と分りました
02:39
Many of these life-forms
live in unusual ways.
これらの生物の多くは
独特な方法で生活しています
02:43
They have no pigment
and no eyes in many cases,
多くの場合 色素や目がなく
02:47
and these animals
are also extremely long-lived.
そして非常に長生きです
02:51
In fact, animals swimming
in these caves today
実は今日洞窟で
泳いでいる動物は
02:55
are identical in the fossil record
恐竜の絶滅以前の
02:59
that predates the extinction
of the dinosaurs.
化石として残されている種と全く同じものです
03:01
So imagine that: these are
like little swimming dinosaurs.
だから これらは小さな
泳ぐ恐竜だと想像してみて下さい
03:04
What can they teach us
about evolution and survival?
彼らは進化と生存について
何を教えてくれるのでしょうか?
03:08
When we look at an animal
like this remipede swimming in the jar,
例えば この瓶の中で泳ぐ
ムカデエビのような動物は
03:13
he has giant fangs with venom.
大きな毒牙を持っています
03:17
He can actually attack something
40 times his size and kill it.
自分の40倍の大きさのものを
襲って殺せます
03:20
If he were the size of a cat,
もしこれが
猫の大きさだとしたら
03:24
he'd be the most dangerous
thing on our planet.
地球上最も危険なもの
になるでしょう
03:26
And these animals live
in remarkably beautiful places,
こうした動物たちは
とても美しい場所に住み
03:29
and in some cases,
caves like this, that are very young,
時にはこのように
とても新しい洞窟ですが
03:33
yet the animals are ancient.
動物は古代のものです
03:37
How did they get there?
どうやってそこに
行ったのでしょうか?
03:39
I also work with physicists,
私は物理学者とも働いています
03:41
and they're interested oftentimes
in global climate change.
彼らは大抵地球の
気候変動に関心があります
03:44
They can take rocks within the caves,
洞窟内の岩を採取し
03:47
and they can slice them
and look at the layers within with rocks,
薄切りにして
岩の内部の層を調査します
03:50
much like the rings of a tree,
木の年輪にそっくりで
03:53
and they can count back in history
歴史を遡ることができ
03:55
and learn about the climate on our planet
at very different times.
全く異なる時代の
地球の気候が分ります
03:57
The red that you see in this photograph
この写真の赤い部分は
04:00
is actually dust from the Sahara Desert.
サハラ砂漠からの砂です
04:03
So it's been picked up by wind,
blown across the Atlantic Ocean.
風に拾われて大西洋を越えて
飛んできました
04:06
It's rained down in this case
on the island of Abaco in the Bahamas.
この場合 バハマのアバコ島に
大量に降り注ぎました
04:10
It soaks in through the ground
地面を通って染み込み
04:15
and deposits itself
in the rocks within these caves.
洞窟内の岩に堆積しました
04:16
And when we look back in the layers
of these rocks, we can find times
これらの岩の層を振り返ると
04:20
when the climate
was very, very dry on earth,
地球の気候が非常に乾燥していた
時代について分り
04:24
and we can go back
many hundreds of thousands of years.
何十万年も遡ることができます
04:27
Paleoclimatologists are also interested
古気候学者も他の時代において
04:32
in where the sea level stands were
at other times on earth.
地球の海面がどこにあったのかに
関心を持っています
04:34
Here in Bermuda, my team and I embarked
ここバミューダで
私はチームと共に
04:38
on the deepest manned dives
ever conducted in the region,
この地域で最も深く
有人潜水を行いました
04:40
and we were looking for places
海面より何百フィートも下で
04:43
where the sea level
used to lap up against the shoreline,
かつて波が打ち寄せた
04:45
many hundreds of feet
below current levels.
海岸線を探したのです
04:48
I also get to work with paleontologists
and archaeologists.
古生物学者と考古学者とも
仕事を始めました
04:52
In places like Mexico,
in the Bahamas, and even in Cuba,
メキシコ バハマ
キューバなどのいくつかの場所で
04:56
we're looking at cultural remains
and also human remains in caves,
洞窟に残された文化遺跡と
人骨を調査しています
05:00
and they tell us a lot
調査によって
05:05
about some of the earliest
inhabitants of these regions.
初期の地域住民について
いろいろなことが分ります
05:06
But my very favorite project of all
was over 15 years ago,
私のお気に入りの
プロジェクトは15年以上前
05:10
when I was a part of the team
that made the very first
地下の地形を正確な3Dの地図として
05:14
accurate, three-dimensional map
of a subterranean surface.
初めて作るチームの
一員だったものです
05:16
This device that I'm
driving through the cave
私が洞窟で運転している装置は
05:20
was actually creating
a three-dimensional model as we drove it.
運転している最中に
3Dモデルを作成していました
05:22
We also used ultra low frequency radio
洞窟内での私たちの正確な位置を
05:27
to broadcast back to the surface
our exact position within the cave.
地上に伝えるために
超低周波無線機も使いました
05:29
So I swam under houses and businesses
and bowling alleys and golf courses,
家、会社、ボーリング場、ゴルフコース
05:34
and even under a Sonny's BBQ Restaurant,
ソニーズBBQレストランの
下さえも泳ぎました
05:39
Pretty remarkable, and what that taught me
とても素晴らしかった
05:43
was that everything we do
on the surface of our earth
それで学んだのは
地球の表面での行いは
05:45
will be returned to us to drink.
飲料水として自分に
返ってくるということです
05:48
Our water planet is not just
rivers, lakes and oceans,
私たちの水惑星は
川、湖、海だけでなく
05:50
but it's this vast network of groundwater
that knits us all together.
私たちを結び付ける地下水の
広大なネットワークなのです
05:55
It's a shared resource
from which we all drink.
それは私たち皆が飲む
共有資源です
06:00
And when we can understand
our human connections with our groundwater
地下水及び地球の水資源と
06:04
and all of our water resources
on this planet,
人間とのつながりを理解したら
06:08
then we'll be working on the problem
恐らく今世紀最も重要な
06:11
that's probably the most important
issue of this century.
問題に取り組むでしょう
06:12
So I never got to be that astronaut
that I always wanted to be,
私はずっとなりたかった
宇宙飛行士になれませんでした
06:17
but this mapping device,
designed by Dr. Bill Stone, will be.
でも ビル・ストーン博士が設計した
この地図作製装置はなれるでしょう
06:20
It's actually morphed.
実際には姿を変えました
06:24
It's now a self-swimming autonomous robot,
今や自泳式
自律型ロボットとなり
06:25
artificially intelligent,
人工知能を持っています
06:28
and its ultimate goal
is to go to Jupiter's moon Europa
その究極の目的は
木星の月のエウロパに行き
06:30
and explore oceans beneath
the frozen surface of that body.
凍結した表面下にある海を
探検することです
06:34
And that's pretty amazing.
とても素晴らしいことです
06:39
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:42
Translated by Hiroe Humphreys
Reviewed by Takamitsu Hirono

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About the speaker:

Jill Heinerth - Cave diver
Jill Heinerth explores underwater caves deep inside the earth.

Why you should listen

More people have walked on the moon than have been to some of the places that Jill's exploration has taken her right here on the earth. From the most dangerous technical dives deep inside underwater caves, to searching for never-before-seen ecosystems inside giant Antarctic icebergs, to the lawless desert border area between Egypt and Libya while a civil war raged around her, Jill's curiosity and passion about our watery planet is the driving force in her life.

Jill’s accolades include induction into the Explorer's Club and the inaugural class of the Women Diver's Hall of Fame. She received the Wyland ICON Award, an honor she shares with several of her underwater heroes including Jacques Cousteau, Robert Ballard and Dr. Sylvia Earle. She was named a "Living Legend" by Sport Diver Magazine and selected as Scuba Diving Magazine's "Sea Hero of the Year 2012."

In recognition of her lifetime achievement, Jill was awarded the inaugural Sir Christopher Ondaatje Medal for Exploration. Established by the Royal Canadian Geographical Society in 2013, the medal recognizes singular achievements and the pursuit of excellence by an outstanding Canadian explorer.

More profile about the speaker
Jill Heinerth | Speaker | TED.com