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TED2009

Brian Cox: What went wrong at the LHC

Brian Cox: Ce s-a intamplat gresit cu LHC

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In aceasta expunere scurta la TED U 2009, Brian Cox prezinta noutatile legate the acceleratorul de particule (Large Hadron Collider - LHC) de la CERN. El vorbeste despre reparatiile curente si care este viitorul celui mai mare experiment stiintific incercat vreodata.

- Physicist
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's a professor at the University of Manchester. Full bio

Last year at TED I gave an introduction to the LHC.
Anul trecut la TED am facut o introducere la LHC.
00:12
And I promised to come back and give you an update
Si am promis sa revin si sa va ofer un update
00:16
on how that machine worked.
despre cum functioneaza aparatul asta.
00:18
So this is it. And for those of you that weren't there,
Asadar, iata-ma. Si pentru cei care nu au fost aici,
00:20
the LHC is the largest scientific experiment ever attempted --
LHC este cel mai mare experiment stiintific care a fost incercat vreodata --
00:22
27 kilometers in circumference.
Cirumferinta de 27 kilometri
00:25
Its job is to recreate the conditions
Scopul sau este de a recrea conditiile
00:27
that were present less than a billionth of a second after the universe began,
prezente la mai putin de o fractiune de un miliard de secunda de la crearea universului --
00:29
up to 600 million times a second.
pana la 600 de miliarde de ori pe secunda.
00:32
It's nothing if not ambitious.
(Experimentul) este extrem de ambitios.
00:35
This is the machine below Geneva.
Acesta este aparatul sub orasul Geneva.
00:37
We take the pictures of those mini-Big Bangs inside detectors.
Facem fotografiile acestor mini "Big Bangs" in interiorul dectoarelor.
00:39
This is the one I work on. It's called the ATLAS detector --
Eu lucrez la acesta. Se numeste detectorul ATLAS --
00:42
44 meters wide, 22 meters in diameter.
Lungime de 44 metri, diametru de 22 metri
00:45
Spectacular picture here of ATLAS under construction
O fotografie spectaculoasa aici a detectorului ATLAS in constructie
00:48
so you can see the scale.
ca sa puteti observa proportia.
00:51
On the 10th of September last year we turned the machine on for the first time.
Pe 10 septembrie anul trecut am pornit aparatul pentru prima data.
00:53
And this picture was taken by ATLAS.
Si aceasta imagine a fost facuta de ATLAS.
00:56
It caused immense celebration in the control room.
A cauzat o celebrare imensa in camera de control.
00:59
It's a picture of the first beam particle
Este o imagine a primului fascicul de particule
01:02
going all the way around the LHC,
care a calatorit de-a lungul intregului sistem LHC,
01:04
colliding with a piece of the LHC deliberately,
ciocnindu-se cu o parte din LHC deliberat,
01:06
and showering particles into the detector.
aruncand particule in detector.
01:09
In other words, when we saw that picture on September 10th
Cu alte cuvinte, cand am vazut acea imagine pe 10 septembrie
01:11
we knew the machine worked,
am stiut ca aparatul(LHC) a functionat,
01:13
which is a great triumph.
ceea ce este un succes imens.
01:15
I don't know whether this got the biggest cheer,
Nu stiu daca asta a primit cele mai mari ovatii,
01:17
or this, when someone went onto Google
sau asta, cand cineva a mers pe pagina Google
01:19
and saw the front page was like that.
si a vazut ca prima pagina arata astfel.
01:21
It means we made cultural impact
Inseamna ca am facut un impact cultural
01:23
as well as scientific impact.
pe langa impactul stiintific.
01:25
About a week later we had a problem with the machine,
Dupa aproximativ o saptamana am avut o problema cu aparatul,
01:27
related actually to these bits of wire here -- these gold wires.
care de fapt a avut de-a face cu aceste fire -- aceste fire de aur.
01:30
Those wires carry 13 thousand amps
Acele fire put transporta 13 mii de amperi
01:34
when the machine is working in full power.
cand aparatul functioneaza la putere maxima.
01:37
Now the engineers amongst you will look at them and say,
Acum, inginerii din sala se uita la aceste fire si zic:
01:39
"No they don't. They're small wires."
"Nu pot transporta atatia amperi. Sunt fire mici."
01:41
They can do that because
Dar pot face asta pentru ca
01:43
when they are very cold they are what's called superconducting wire.
atunci cand sunt la temperaturi scazute devin ceea ce se cheama fire superconductoare.
01:45
So at minus 271 degrees,
Astfel ca la -271 grade (Celsius),
01:47
colder than the space between the stars,
fiind mai frig decat spatiul dintre stele,
01:50
those wires can take that current.
acele fire pot transporta astfel de curent.
01:52
In one of the joints between over 9,000 magnets in LHC,
La una dintre legaturile dintre cei peste 9000 de magneti in LHC,
01:54
there was a manufacturing defect.
a fost un defect de fabricatie.
01:58
So the wire heated up slightly,
Astfel ca firul s-a incalzit putin,
02:00
and its 13,000 amps suddenly encountered electrical resistance.
si cei 13 mii de amperi au intalnit rezistenta electrica.
02:02
This was the result.
Acesta a fost rezultatul.
02:06
Now that's more impressive
Asta este mai impresionant
02:08
when you consider those magnets weigh over 20 tons,
considerand ca acei magneti cantaresc peste 20 de tone,
02:11
and they moved about a foot.
si s-au deplasat aproape 30 de cm.
02:13
So we damaged about 50 of the magnets.
Asadar, am deteriorat aproximativ 50 de magneti.
02:15
We had to take them out, which we did.
A trebuit sa ii scoatem afara, ceea ce am si facut.
02:18
We reconditioned them all, fixed them.
I-am reconditionat pe toti, i-am reparat.
02:21
They're all on their way back underground now.
Si acum ducem magnetii inapoi in subteran.
02:23
By the end of March the LHC will be intact again.
Pana la sfarsitul lui martie aparatul LHC va fi ca nou iarasi.
02:25
We will switch it on,
Il vom porni din nou,
02:27
and we expect to take data in June or July,
si ne asteptam sa obtinem date in iunie sau iulie,
02:29
and continue with our quest to find out
si vom continua cercetarea pentru a afla
02:32
what the building blocks of the universe are.
care sunt elementele esentiale ale universului.
02:35
Now of course, in a way
Acum, bineinteles ca intr-un fel,
02:37
those accidents reignite the debate
acele accidente redeschid discutia
02:40
about the value of science and engineering at the edge. It's easy to refute.
despre importanta stiintei si ingineriei duse la extrem. Este usor sa respingi (importanta experimentului).
02:42
I think that the fact that it's so difficult,
Cred ca datorita faptului ca este atat de dificil,
02:48
the fact that we're overreaching, is the value of things like the LHC.
datorita faptului ca avem tinte inalte, aceasta este importanta experimentelor precum LHC.
02:50
I will leave the final word to an English scientist, Humphrey Davy,
Voi lasa ca incheiere cuvintele unui om de stiinta Britanic, Humphrey Davy,
02:54
who, I suspect,
care, cred eu,
02:58
when defending his protege's useless experiments --
cand apara experimentele inutile ale protejatului sau,
03:00
his protege was Michael Faraday --
acesta fiind Michael Faraday,
03:03
said this, "Nothing is so dangerous
a spus: "Nimic nu este mai periculos
03:05
to the progress of the human mind
pentru progresul mintii umane
03:08
than to assume that our views of science are ultimate,
decat sa presupunem ca parerile noastre stiintifice sunt finale,
03:10
that there are no mysteries in nature,
ca nu mai sunt mistere in natura,
03:14
that our triumphs are complete, and that
ca triumfurile noastre s-au terminat, si ca
03:16
there are no new worlds to conquer."
nu mai sunt lumi de cucerit."
03:18
Thank you.
Va multumesc.
03:20
(Applause)
(Aplauze)
03:22
Translated by George Zamfir
Reviewed by Alex Ghioiu

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About the speaker:

Brian Cox - Physicist
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's a professor at the University of Manchester.

Why you should listen

Based at the University of Manchester, Brian Cox works at CERN in Geneva on the ATLAS experiment, studying the forward proton detectors for the Large Hadron Collider there. He's a professor at the University of Manchester, working in the High Energy Physics group, and is a research fellow of the Royal Society.

He's also become a vital voice in the UK media for explaining physics to the public. With his rockstar hair and accessible charm, he's the go-to physicist for explaining heady concepts on British TV and radio. (If you're in the UK, watch him on The Big Bang Machine.) He was the science advisor for the 2007 film Sunshine. He answers science questions every Friday on BBC6 radio's Breakfast Show.

More profile about the speaker
Brian Cox | Speaker | TED.com