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TED2009

Brian Cox: What went wrong at the LHC

Brajan Koks: Šta je pošlo naopako sa LHC-om

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U ovom kratkom TED predavanju iz 2009. godine, Brajan Koks govori o novostima vezanim za CERN-ov supersudarač čestica. On priča o popravkama koje su trenutno u toku i šta budućnost donosi kada je najveći naučni eksperiment ikada započet u pitanju.

- Physicist
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's a professor at the University of Manchester. Full bio

Last year at TED I gave an introduction to the LHC.
Na prošlogodišnjem govoru upoznao sam vas sa LHC-om.
00:12
And I promised to come back and give you an update
I obećao sam da cu doći ponovo sa novim informacijama
00:16
on how that machine worked.
o tome kako ta mašina radi.
00:18
So this is it. And for those of you that weren't there,
Zato sam sada ovde. A za sve vas koji niste bili prisutni,
00:20
the LHC is the largest scientific experiment ever attempted --
LHC je najveći naučni eksperiment ikada pokušan -
00:22
27 kilometers in circumference.
27 kilometara u obimu.
00:25
Its job is to recreate the conditions
Njegov zadatak je da ponovo stvori uslove
00:27
that were present less than a billionth of a second after the universe began,
koji su bili prisutni u manje od milijarditog dela sekunde nakon nastanka univerzuma,
00:29
up to 600 million times a second.
do 600 miliona puta u sekundi.
00:32
It's nothing if not ambitious.
U najmanju ruku ambiciozno.
00:35
This is the machine below Geneva.
Ovo je akcelerator ispod Ženeve.
00:37
We take the pictures of those mini-Big Bangs inside detectors.
Slikamo te mini-Velike praske koji se dešavaju u detektorima.
00:39
This is the one I work on. It's called the ATLAS detector --
Ovo je jedan od njih na kojem ja radim. Ime mu je ATLAS detektor -
00:42
44 meters wide, 22 meters in diameter.
44 metara dugačak, 22 metra u prečniku.
00:45
Spectacular picture here of ATLAS under construction
Spektakularna slika iz perioda sklapanja ATLAS-a
00:48
so you can see the scale.
da biste stekli utisak o veličini.
00:51
On the 10th of September last year we turned the machine on for the first time.
Po prvi put smo uključili akcelerator 10. septembra prethodne godine.
00:53
And this picture was taken by ATLAS.
Ovu sliku je uslikao ATLAS.
00:56
It caused immense celebration in the control room.
Bila je uzrok ogromnog veselja u kontrolnoj sobi.
00:59
It's a picture of the first beam particle
To je slika prvog snopa čestica
01:02
going all the way around the LHC,
kako se posle prolaska celom dužinom LHC-a
01:04
colliding with a piece of the LHC deliberately,
sudara sa svrsishodno postavljenim delom LHC-a
01:06
and showering particles into the detector.
i rasipa čestice u detektor.
01:09
In other words, when we saw that picture on September 10th
Druim rečima, kada smo videli tu sliku 10. septembra
01:11
we knew the machine worked,
znali smo da akcelerator radi,
01:13
which is a great triumph.
što je veliki trijumf.
01:15
I don't know whether this got the biggest cheer,
Nisam siguran da li je to prouzrokovalo najglasnije radovanje
01:17
or this, when someone went onto Google
ili ovo, kada je neko otvorio Google
01:19
and saw the front page was like that.
i video da naslovna strana ovako izgleda.
01:21
It means we made cultural impact
To znači da smo ostvarili kulturološki uticaj,
01:23
as well as scientific impact.
kao i naučni.
01:25
About a week later we had a problem with the machine,
Oko nedelju dana kasnije se dogodio problem na akceleratoru,
01:27
related actually to these bits of wire here -- these gold wires.
zapravo na ovim delovima žice ovde - ovim zlatnim žicama.
01:30
Those wires carry 13 thousand amps
Te žice provode 13 hiljada ampera
01:34
when the machine is working in full power.
kada akcelerator radi u punom režimu.
01:37
Now the engineers amongst you will look at them and say,
Inženjeri među vama će ih pogledati i reći:
01:39
"No they don't. They're small wires."
"Nemoguće. To su male žice."
01:41
They can do that because
Te žice mogu to da rade zato što
01:43
when they are very cold they are what's called superconducting wire.
su u stanju superprovodnosti kada se dovoljno ohlade.
01:45
So at minus 271 degrees,
Dakle, na minus 271 stepeni Celzjusa,
01:47
colder than the space between the stars,
što je hladnije od međuzvezdanog prostora,
01:50
those wires can take that current.
te žice mogu da provode struju te jačine.
01:52
In one of the joints between over 9,000 magnets in LHC,
Jedan od više od 9 hiljada sklopova magneta LHC-a
01:54
there was a manufacturing defect.
je napravljen sa greškom,
01:58
So the wire heated up slightly,
tako da se žica zagrejala veoma malo
02:00
and its 13,000 amps suddenly encountered electrical resistance.
i 13 hiljada ampera je odjednom naišlo na električni otpor.
02:02
This was the result.
Ovo je bio rezultat.
02:06
Now that's more impressive
Ipak, ovo je impresivnije
02:08
when you consider those magnets weigh over 20 tons,
kada uzmete u obzir da ti magneti imaju masu od preko 20 tona
02:11
and they moved about a foot.
i da su pomereni oko trećine metra.
02:13
So we damaged about 50 of the magnets.
Oštećeno je oko 50 magneta.
02:15
We had to take them out, which we did.
Morali smo da ih izvadimo, što smo i uradili.
02:18
We reconditioned them all, fixed them.
Sve smo ih popravili i vratili u radno stanje
02:21
They're all on their way back underground now.
i upravo ovih dana ih šaljemo nazad u podzemni tunel.
02:23
By the end of March the LHC will be intact again.
LHC će ponovo mirovati do kraja marta.
02:25
We will switch it on,
Uključićemo ga,
02:27
and we expect to take data in June or July,
a zatim očekujemo podatke u junu ili julu,
02:29
and continue with our quest to find out
kao nastavak naše potrage za odgovorom na pitanje
02:32
what the building blocks of the universe are.
od čega je sazdan naš univerzum.
02:35
Now of course, in a way
Naravno, na neki način
02:37
those accidents reignite the debate
ove nezgode ponovo dovode u fokus debatu
02:40
about the value of science and engineering at the edge. It's easy to refute.
o vrednosti nauke i inženjerstva koji rade na nečemu potpuno novom. Lako ih je pobijati.
02:42
I think that the fact that it's so difficult,
Mislim da je to što je taj rad toliko težak,
02:48
the fact that we're overreaching, is the value of things like the LHC.
činjenica da posežemo za nečim novim, vrednost stvari kao što je LHC.
02:50
I will leave the final word to an English scientist, Humphrey Davy,
Poslednju izjavu ću prepustiti engleskom naučniku Hemfri Dejviju
02:54
who, I suspect,
koji je da bi osujetio
02:58
when defending his protege's useless experiments --
napade na beskorisne eksperimente njegovog štićenika,
03:00
his protege was Michael Faraday --
a to je bio Majkl Faradej,
03:03
said this, "Nothing is so dangerous
izrekao ovo: "Ništa nije opasnije
03:05
to the progress of the human mind
po napredak ljudskog uma
03:08
than to assume that our views of science are ultimate,
od pretpostavke da je naše naučno razumevanje sveta savršeno,
03:10
that there are no mysteries in nature,
da ne postoje misterije u prirodi,
03:14
that our triumphs are complete, and that
da su naši trijumfi kompletirani, i da
03:16
there are no new worlds to conquer."
ne postoje novi svetovi koje valja osvojiti."
03:18
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
03:20
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
03:22
Translated by Stevan Radanovic
Reviewed by Sandra Gojic

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About the speaker:

Brian Cox - Physicist
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's a professor at the University of Manchester.

Why you should listen

Based at the University of Manchester, Brian Cox works at CERN in Geneva on the ATLAS experiment, studying the forward proton detectors for the Large Hadron Collider there. He's a professor at the University of Manchester, working in the High Energy Physics group, and is a research fellow of the Royal Society.

He's also become a vital voice in the UK media for explaining physics to the public. With his rockstar hair and accessible charm, he's the go-to physicist for explaining heady concepts on British TV and radio. (If you're in the UK, watch him on The Big Bang Machine.) He was the science advisor for the 2007 film Sunshine. He answers science questions every Friday on BBC6 radio's Breakfast Show.

More profile about the speaker
Brian Cox | Speaker | TED.com