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TED2009

Brian Cox: What went wrong at the LHC

Brian Cox: Što je pošlo krivo s LHC-om

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U ovom kratkom TED U predavanju iz 2009. godine, Brian Cox govori o novostima vezanim za CERN-ov supersudarač čestica. On priča o popravcima koji su trenutno u toku i što budućnost donosi kada je najveći znanstveni eksperiment ikada započet u pitanju.

- Physicist
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's a professor at the University of Manchester. Full bio

Last year at TED I gave an introduction to the LHC.
Na prošlogodišnjem govoru upoznao sam vas sa LHC-om.
00:12
And I promised to come back and give you an update
I obećao sam da cu doći ponovo sa novim informacijama
00:16
on how that machine worked.
o tome kako taj uređaj radi.
00:18
So this is it. And for those of you that weren't there,
Zato sam sada ovdje. Za vas koji niste bili prisutni,
00:20
the LHC is the largest scientific experiment ever attempted --
LHC je najveći znanstveni eksperiment ikada pokušan -
00:22
27 kilometers in circumference.
27 kilometara obujma.
00:25
Its job is to recreate the conditions
Njegov zadatak je da ponovo stvori uvjete
00:27
that were present less than a billionth of a second after the universe began,
koji su bili prisutni u manje od milijarditog dijela sekunde nakon nastanka svemira,
00:29
up to 600 million times a second.
do 600 milijuna puta u sekundi.
00:32
It's nothing if not ambitious.
U najmanju ruku ambiciozno.
00:35
This is the machine below Geneva.
Ovo je uređaj ispod Ženeve
00:37
We take the pictures of those mini-Big Bangs inside detectors.
Slikamo te mini-velike praske u tim detektorima.
00:39
This is the one I work on. It's called the ATLAS detector --
Ovo je jedan od tih na kojem ja radim. Ime mu je ATLAS detektor -
00:42
44 meters wide, 22 meters in diameter.
44 metra širok, 22 metra promjera.
00:45
Spectacular picture here of ATLAS under construction
Spektakularna slika iz perioda sklapanja ATLAS-a
00:48
so you can see the scale.
da bi dobili dojam o veličini.
00:51
On the 10th of September last year we turned the machine on for the first time.
Prvi put smo uključili uređaj 10. studenog prošle godine.
00:53
And this picture was taken by ATLAS.
Ovu sliku je slikao ATLAS.
00:56
It caused immense celebration in the control room.
Bila je uzrok ogromnog veselja u kontrolnoj sobi.
00:59
It's a picture of the first beam particle
To je slika prvog snopa čestica
01:02
going all the way around the LHC,
kako se poslije prolaska cijelom dužinom LHC-a,
01:04
colliding with a piece of the LHC deliberately,
sudara sa svrsishodno postavljenim dijelom LHC-a
01:06
and showering particles into the detector.
i rasipa čestice u detektor.
01:09
In other words, when we saw that picture on September 10th
Drugim riječima, kada smo vidjeli tu sliku 10. studenog
01:11
we knew the machine worked,
znali smo da uređaj radi,
01:13
which is a great triumph.
što je bio velik uspjeh.
01:15
I don't know whether this got the biggest cheer,
Nisam siguran da li je to prouzrokovalo najglasnije radovanje,
01:17
or this, when someone went onto Google
ili ovo, kada je netko otvorio Google
01:19
and saw the front page was like that.
i vidio da naslovna strana ovako izgleda.
01:21
It means we made cultural impact
To znači da smo ostvarili kulturološki utjecaj,
01:23
as well as scientific impact.
kao i znanstveni.
01:25
About a week later we had a problem with the machine,
Oko tjedan dana kasnije dogodio se problem na uređaju,
01:27
related actually to these bits of wire here -- these gold wires.
zapravo na ovim dijelovima žice ovdje - ovim zlatnim žicama.
01:30
Those wires carry 13 thousand amps
Te žice provode 13 tisuća ampera
01:34
when the machine is working in full power.
kada akcelerator radi punom snagom.
01:37
Now the engineers amongst you will look at them and say,
Inženjeri među vama će ih pogledati i reći:
01:39
"No they don't. They're small wires."
"Nemoguće. To su male žice."
01:41
They can do that because
Te žice mogu to zato što
01:43
when they are very cold they are what's called superconducting wire.
su u stanju superprovodljivosti kada se dovoljno ohlade.
01:45
So at minus 271 degrees,
Dakle na minus 271 stupanj Celzijusa,
01:47
colder than the space between the stars,
to je hladnije od međuzvjezdanog prostora,
01:50
those wires can take that current.
te žice mogu provoditi struju te jačine.
01:52
In one of the joints between over 9,000 magnets in LHC,
Jedan od više od 9 tisuća magneta LHC-a,
01:54
there was a manufacturing defect.
je napravljen s greškom.
01:58
So the wire heated up slightly,
Tako se žica zagrijala vrlo malo,
02:00
and its 13,000 amps suddenly encountered electrical resistance.
i 13 tisuća ampera je odjednom naišlo na električni otpor.
02:02
This was the result.
Ovo je bio rezultat.
02:06
Now that's more impressive
Ipak, ovo je impresivnije
02:08
when you consider those magnets weigh over 20 tons,
kada uzmete u obzir da ti magneti imaju masu od preko 20 tona,
02:11
and they moved about a foot.
i pomaknuti su za tridesetak cm.
02:13
So we damaged about 50 of the magnets.
Oštećeno je oko 50 magneta.
02:15
We had to take them out, which we did.
Morali smo ih izvaditi, što smo i učinili.
02:18
We reconditioned them all, fixed them.
Sve smo ih popravili i vratili u funkciju.
02:21
They're all on their way back underground now.
I upravo ovih dana ih šaljemo nazad u podzemni tunel.
02:23
By the end of March the LHC will be intact again.
LHC će ponovno mirovati do kraja ožujka.
02:25
We will switch it on,
Uključit ćemo ga,
02:27
and we expect to take data in June or July,
a zatim očekujemo podatke u lipnju ili srpnju,
02:29
and continue with our quest to find out
kao nastavak naše potrage za odgovorom na pitanje
02:32
what the building blocks of the universe are.
od čega je sazdan naš svemir.
02:35
Now of course, in a way
Naravno, na neki način
02:37
those accidents reignite the debate
ove nezgode ponovo dovode debatu
02:40
about the value of science and engineering at the edge. It's easy to refute.
o vrijednosti znanosti i inženjerstva koji rade na nečemu potpuno novom. Lako ih je opovrgnuti.
02:42
I think that the fact that it's so difficult,
Mislim da je to što je taj rad toliko težak,
02:48
the fact that we're overreaching, is the value of things like the LHC.
činjenica da posežemo za nečim novim, vrijednost stvari kao što je LHC.
02:50
I will leave the final word to an English scientist, Humphrey Davy,
Posljednju izjavu ću prepustiti engleskom znanstveniku, Humphrey Davyju,
02:54
who, I suspect,
koji je, bar ja tako sumnjam,
02:58
when defending his protege's useless experiments --
braneći beskorisne eksperimente njegovog štićenika,
03:00
his protege was Michael Faraday --
a to je bio Michael Faraday,
03:03
said this, "Nothing is so dangerous
rekao ovo, "Ništa nije tako opasno
03:05
to the progress of the human mind
po napredak ljudskog uma
03:08
than to assume that our views of science are ultimate,
od pretpostavke da je naše znanstveno razumjevanje svijeta savršeno,
03:10
that there are no mysteries in nature,
da ne postoje misterije u prirodi,
03:14
that our triumphs are complete, and that
da su naši uspijesi kompletni, i da
03:16
there are no new worlds to conquer."
ne postoje novi svijetovi koje treba osvojiti."
03:18
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
03:20
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
03:22
Translated by Bojan Hodap
Reviewed by Tilen Pigac - EFZG

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About the speaker:

Brian Cox - Physicist
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's a professor at the University of Manchester.

Why you should listen

Based at the University of Manchester, Brian Cox works at CERN in Geneva on the ATLAS experiment, studying the forward proton detectors for the Large Hadron Collider there. He's a professor at the University of Manchester, working in the High Energy Physics group, and is a research fellow of the Royal Society.

He's also become a vital voice in the UK media for explaining physics to the public. With his rockstar hair and accessible charm, he's the go-to physicist for explaining heady concepts on British TV and radio. (If you're in the UK, watch him on The Big Bang Machine.) He was the science advisor for the 2007 film Sunshine. He answers science questions every Friday on BBC6 radio's Breakfast Show.

More profile about the speaker
Brian Cox | Speaker | TED.com